ABSTRACT Our previous study suggested that the production of superantigens and heat-shock protein 60 by small intestinal bacteria might play a role in Kawasaki disease (KD). We demonstrated that they were all resistant to commonly used antibiotics, except for sulamethoxazole trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). We used SMX-TMP for 7 cases of KD that were unresponsive to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and studied the antipyretic potency of this treatment. In 6 out of the 7 cases, we demonstrated that antipyretic potency was observed without side effects within 2 days of the initial administration. Antimicrobial therapy using SMX-TMP might represent a novel strategy for cases of KD that are unresponsive to IVIG.
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