AiM  Vol.7 No.1 , January 2017
In Vitro Activity of Colistin and Vancomycin or Azithromycin Combinations on Extensively Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates
Abstract: Background: Extensively drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB) presents an increasing challenge to health care in Egypt as they are among the most common bacteria isolated in hospital setting. Treatment of such infections usually involves the use of antimicrobial agents in combination. Various combinations have been proposed, with colistin serving as the backbone in many of them even for colistin resistant isolates. Aim: The study was conducted in order to test the in vitro combined effects of colistin and vancomycin or azithromycin against (XDR-AB) causing infections at Alexandria Main University Hospital in Egypt, in an attempt to detect the possibility of a beneficial combination therapy. Material/Methods: Thirty XDR-AB clinical isolates were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using automated Vitek 2 compact system and disc diffusion method. Colistin antibiotic disc diffusion test was compared with broth microdilution method. Organisms were also tested against colistin and vancomycin or azithromycin in combination using checkerboard synergy test and FICI (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index) was calculated. Synergy was defined as a FICI of ≤0.5. Results: On comparing the two methods used to detect susceptibility to colistin to broth microdilution for MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) determination, as a reference method, the Vitek showed 100% categorical agreement (CA), on the other hand, the disc diffusion showed CA of 93% with very major errors. Synergy was detected for all isolates (100%) when combining colistin with vancomycin (FICI mean = 0.08). As for azithromycin, 21 strains had FICI range from 0.7 to 1.001, denoting indifference; the remaining 9 strains showed synergy with FICI range from 0.06 to 0.241. The mean colistin/azithromycin FICI was 0.71 for the 30 isolates. Conclusion: These findings suggest that regimens containing vancomycin may confer therapeutic benefit for infection due to XDR-AB; however, other methods (time-kill assay) should be used to confirm such synergy. Furthermore, the optimal combination treatment for serious XDR-AB infection should be addressed in a prospective clinical trial.
Cite this paper: Okasha, H. and Meheissen, M. (2017) In Vitro Activity of Colistin and Vancomycin or Azithromycin Combinations on Extensively Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates. Advances in Microbiology, 7, 71-81. doi: 10.4236/aim.2017.71006.

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