Health  Vol.9 No.1 , January 2017
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Assessment of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among School Children in Asmara, Eritrea
Abstract: Purpose: Poor hygiene practice, inadequate sanitary conditions and lack of awareness of correct mode of transmission are some factors that attribute to high intestinal parasitic infection among children. Therefore, having proper knowledge, good attitude and practice (KAP) against the aforementioned factors can significantly mitigate the spreading of intestinal infection. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study which comprised of 127 students who were selected by stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used to record KAP of students against intestinal parasitic infection. Total 126 students gave stool samples which were analysed by formol-ether concentration technique. In addition, sewage samples were also collected and analysed for any parasitic load. Statistical data were generated by Chi-square test. Results: A total of 126 stool samples were examined in the study of which 46 (36.50%) were found infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Among the parasites identified, the most common was Hymenolepsis nana with a prevalence rate of 35 (76.0%). Here, most of the students 96 (76.1%) were having poor knowledge about the correct mode of transmission of intestinal parasites. Majority of the students 91 (72.2%) practicing defecation in open air when they are at home, and all 126 (100%) are doing that at school, and significant number of students were not washing hands after defecation. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge regarding mode of transmission and practice of defecation in open air and not washing hands after defecation are issues of great concern, because many parasitic infection have faecal-oral mode of transmission. So, health authorities have to take these issues seriously and action would be vital to resolve it.
Cite this paper: Ahmed, K. , Siraj, N. , Fitsumberhan, H. , Isaac, S. , Yohannes, S. , Eman, D. , Berhane, Y. and Araya, M. (2017) Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Assessment of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among School Children in Asmara, Eritrea. Health, 9, 57-68. doi: 10.4236/health.2017.91005.

[1]   Helminthiasis, V.J. (1991) Diseases of Children in the Subtropics and Tropics. In: Stanfield, P., Brueton, M., Chan, M., Parkin, M., Waterston, T., Eds., Edward Arnold Ltd., London, 633-648.

[2]   Egwunyenga, O.A. and Ataikiru, D.P. (2005) Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis among School Age Children in Ethiope East Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 938-941.

[3]   Obiukwu, M.O., Umeanaeto, P.U., Eneanya, C.I. and Nworgu, G.O. (2008) Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Helminth in School Children in Mbaukwu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 101, 705-713.

[4]   Nematian, J., Nematian, E., Gholamrezanezhad, A. and Asgari, A.A. (2004) Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Their Relation with Socio-Economic Factors and Hygiene Habits in Tehran Primary School Students. Acta Tropica, 92, 179-186.

[5]   Nwosu, A.B.C. (1981) The Community Ecology of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections of Human in a Hyperendemic Area of Southern Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 75, 197-203.

[6]   Adekunle, L. (2002) Intestinal Parasites and Nutritional Status of Nigerian Children. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 5, 115-119.

[7]   Quihui-Cota, L., Valencia, M.E., Crompton, D.W.T., Phillips, S., Hagan, P., Diaz-Camacho, S.P., et al. (2004) Prevalence and Intensity of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Relation to Nutritional Status in Mexican School Children. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 98, 653-659.

[8]   Carvalho-Costa, F.A., Goncalves, A.Q., Lassance, S.L., Silva Neto, L.M., Salmazo, C.A.A. and Boi, M.N. (2007) Giardia lamblia and Other Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Their Relationships with Nutritional Status in Children in Brazilian Amazon. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, 49, 147-153.

[9]   Nematian, J., Gholamrezanezhad, A. and Nematian, E. (2008) Giardiasis and Other Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Relation to Anthropometric Indicators of Malnutrition: A Large-Population-Based Survey of School Children in Tehran. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 102, 209-214.

[10]   Silva, R.R., Mariano da Silva, C.A., Pereira, C.A.D., Nicolato, R.L., Negrao-Correa, D., Iamounier, J.A. and Carneiro, M. (2009) Association between Nutritional Status, Environmental and Socio-Economic Factors and Giardia lamblia Infections among Children Aged 6-7 Months in Brazil. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103, 512-519.

[11]   Edungbola, L.D. and Obi, A.A. (1992) A Review of Human Intestinal Parasites in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects for Integrated Control. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 13, 27-37.

[12]   Casapia, M., Joseph, S.A., Nunez, C., Rahme, E. and Gyorkos, T.W. (2006) Parasite Risk Factors for Stunting in Grade 5 Students in a Community of Extreme Poverty in Peru. International Journal for Parasitology, 36, 741-747.

[13]   Adedoyin, M.A., Awogun, I.A. and Juergensen, T. (1990) Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitoses in Relationship to Diarrhea among Children in Ilorin. West African Journal of Medicine, 9, 83-88.

[14]   Basu, A.K., Ahmed, M.I., Shingu, P.A. and Srivastava, G.C. (1994) A Comparative Study of the Different Solutions Used in the Diagnosis of Gastro Intestinal Helminth and Protozoa Infections. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42, 37-39.

[15]   Ayres, R. and Mara, D.D. (1996) Analysis of Wastewater for Use in Agriculture. WHO, Geneva.

[16]   Anderson, R.M. and May, R.M. (1991) Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford University Press, New York.

[17]   Cooper, N.R. (1991) Complement Evasion Strategies of Microorganisms. Immunology Today, 12, 327-331.

[18]   Srikanth, R. and Naik, D. (2004) Prevalence of Giardiasis Due to Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture in the Suburbs of Asmara City, Eritrea. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 14, 43-52.

[19]   Haldar, A.K., Sen, P. and Roy, S. (2011) Use of Antimony in the Treatment of Leishmaniasis: Current Status and Future Directions. Molecular Biology International, 2011, Article ID: 571242.

[20]   Khan, M.Y. (1979) An Analytical Study of Factors Related to Infestation by Intestinal Parasites in Rural School Children (Report of a Pilot Study). Public Health, 93, 82-88.

[21]   Water and Sanitation Program (2007) Can Hygiene Be Cool and Fun: Insights from School Children in Senegal.

[22]   Curtis, V. and Cairncross, S. (2003) Effect of Washing Hands with Soap on Diarrhoea Risk in the Community: A Systematic Review. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 3, 275-281.