ABSTRACT Japanese students, who study English as second language often have the difficulty in learning English. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have special difficulty with English spelling. Previous researches suggest that equivalence-based training, such as the matching-to-sample (MTS) procedure and the constructional response matching-to-sample (CRMTS) procedure were effective for the acquisition of spelling. The present study examined the controlling variables for the acquisition of English spelling skills by 4 Japanese students with ASD and compared the effects of MTS and CRMTS procedures on transfer to spelling. The results showed that the MTS and CRMTS procedures were equally effective for shorter letter words. But the students showed better results on acquisition and transfer to spelling for longer letter words after CRMTS procedure. The results are discussed in terms of the effect of the CRMTS procedure on the acquisition and transfer of spelling words.
Cite this paper
nullOmori, M. , Sugasawara, H. & Yamamoto, J. (2011). Acquisition and Transfer of English as a Second Language through the Constructional Response Matching-to-Sample Procedure for Students with Developmental Disabilities. Psychology, 2, 552-559. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.26085.
 Cohen, J. (1968). Weighted kappa: Nominal scale agreement with provisions for scale disagreement or partial credit. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 313-320. doi:10.1037/h0026256
de Rose, J. C., de Souza, D. G., & Hanna, E. S. (1996). Teaching reading and writing: Exclusion and stimulus equivalence. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 451-469. doi:10.1901/jaba.1996.29-451
Dube,W. V., & McIlvane,W. J. (1995). Stimulus-reinforcer relations and emergent matching to sample. The Psychological Record, 45, 591-612.
Erhardt, R. P. (1988). Developmental hand dysfunction: Theory assessment treatment, Austin: Pro-Ed.
Hauck, J.A. & Dewey, D. (2001). Hand preference and motor functioning in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 265-277. doi:10.1023/A:1010791118978
Layng, T. V. J., Twyman, J., & Stikeleather, G. (2004). Engineering discovery learning: The contingency adduction of some precursors of textual responding in a beginning reading program. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 20, 99-109.
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. (2002). Developing a strategic plan to cultivate “Japanese with English Abilities”. Tokyo: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
Ohba, S. (1996). Problems and improvement of teaching handwriting in a regular class to children with writing difficulties. The Japanese Journal of Special Education, 33, 15-24.
Sidman, M. (2000). Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 74, 127- 146. doi:10.1901/jeab.2000.74-127
Stromer, R., Mackay, H. A., Howell, S. R., McVay, A. A., & Flusser, D. (1996). Teaching computer-based writing to individuals with developmental and hearing disabilities: Transfer of stimulus control to writing tasks. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 25-42.
Stromer, R., Mackay, H. A., McVay, A. A., & Fowler, T. (1998). Written lists as mediating stimuli in the matching-to-sample performances of individuals with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 1-19. doi:10.1901/jaba.1998.31-1
Sugasawara, H., & Yamamoto, J. (2007). Computer-based teaching of word construction and reading in two students with developmental disabilities. Behavioral Intervention, 22, 263-277.
Sugasawara, H., & Yamamoto, J. (2009). Computer-based teaching of Kanji construction and writing in a student with developmental disabilities. Behavioral Intervention, 24, 43-53. doi:10.1002/bin.271
Vedora. J., & Stromer, R. (2007). Computer-based writing instruction for students with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 489-505. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2006.06.006
Wechsler, D. (1998). Wechsler intelligence scales for Children (3rd ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
Yamamoto, J., & Miya, T. (1999). Acquisition and transfer of sentence construction in autistic students: Analysis of computer-based teaching. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 20, 355-377.
Yamamoto, J., & Shimizu, H. (2001). Acquisition and expansion of Kanji vocabulary through computer-based teaching in a student with mental retardation: Analysis by equivalence relations. Japanese Journal of Special Education, 38, 17-31.