Back
 AiM  Vol.7 No.1 , January 2017
Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, dupA and oipA Genotypes in Patients with Gastric Disease
Abstract: Gastric diseases such as chronic gastritis and gastric cancer are most commonly caused by virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), such as the vacA, cagA, dupA and oipA genes. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence and the combination of these virulence factors from patients with gastric diseases. The endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 516 patients with gastric symptoms, 101 of which were from patients with normal gastric tissue, 365 of which were from patients with chronic gastritis, and 50 of which were from patients with gastric cancer. H. pylori and the virulence factors were detected by PCR. The oipA gene exhibited an increased risk for chronic gastritis (p = 0.0296), and the vacA gene demonstrated a risk for gastric cancer from chronic gastritis (p = 0.0002). Based on the combination of the virulence factors, cagA, vacA, dupA and oipA genes exhibited a high prevalence in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. The cagA+/dupA+ genotype demonstrated a significant correlation in patients with normal gastric mucosa (p = 0.0278). In the chronic gastritis group, a significant association was observed between the cagA+ and the vacA s1m1 genotypes (p < 0.0001), the cagA+/dupA+ genotypes (p = 0.0183), the dupA+/oipA+ genotypes (p < 0.0001), and the dupA+/vacA s1m1 genotypes (p = 0.0008) genotypes. This study revealed a high prevalence of the combination of cagA, vacA, dupA, and oipA genes, which contributed to the risk of developing gastroduodenal diseases. Furthermore, this is the first study to reveal a high prevalence of the oipA gene in H. pylori isolates in Brazil.
Cite this paper: Sallas, M. , Melchiades, J. , Zabaglia, L. , Moreno, J. , Orcini, W. , Chen, E. , Smith, M. , Payão, S. and Rasmussen, L. (2017) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, dupA and oipA Genotypes in Patients with Gastric Disease. Advances in Microbiology, 7, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/aim.2017.71001.
References

[1]   Kao, C.Y., Sheu, B.S. and Wu, J.J. (2016) Helicobacter pylori Infection: An Overview of Bacterial Virulence Factors and Pathogenesis. Biomedical Journal, 39, 14-23.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2015.06.002

[2]   Safavi, M., Sabourian, R. and Foroumadi, A. (2016) Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Current and Future Insights. World Journal of Clinical Cases, 4, 5-19.
https://doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v4.i1.5

[3]   Shiota, S. and Yamaoka, Y. (2014) Biomarkers for Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastroduodenal Diseases. Biomarkers in Medicine, 8, 1127-1137.
https://doi.org/10.2217/bmm.14.72

[4]   Vinagre, I.D., Queiroz, A.L., Silva Jr., M.R., Vinagre, R.M. and Martins, L.C. (2015) Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Different Gastrointestinal Diseases from Northern Brazil. Arquivos de Gastroenterologia, 52, 266-271.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032015000400004

[5]   Malfertheiner, P., Bornschein, J. and Selgrad, M. (2010) Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: A Chance for Prevention. Journal of Digestive Diseases, 11, 2-11.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-2980.2009.00408.x

[6]   Yamaoka, Y. (2010) Mechanisms of Disease: Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 7, 629-641.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2010.154

[7]   Yamaoka, Y. and Graham, D.Y. (2014) Helicobacter pylori Virulence and Cancer Pathogenesis. Future Oncology, 10, 1487-1500. https://doi.org/10.2217/fon.14.29

[8]   Shiota, S., Suzuki, R. and Yamaoka, Y. (2013) The Significance of Virulence Factors in Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Digestive Diseases, 14, 341-349.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-2980.12054

[9]   Lu, H., Hsu, P.I., Graham, D.Y. and Yamaoka, Y. (2005) Duodenal Ulcer Promoting Gene of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology, 128, 833-848.
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2005.01.009

[10]   Yamaoka, Y., Kwon, D.H. and Graham, D.Y. (2000) A Mr 34,000 Proinflammatory Outer Membrane Protein (oipA) of Helicobacter pylori. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 7533-7538.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.130079797

[11]   Liu, J., He, C., Chen, M., Wang, Z., Xing, C. and Yuan, Y. (2013) Association of Presence/Absence and on/off Patterns of Helicobacter pylori oipA Gene with Peptic Ulcer Disease and Gastric Cancer Risks: A Meta-Analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13, 555.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-13-555

[12]   Sugano, K., Tack, J., Kuipers, E.J., Graham, D.Y., El-Omar, E.M., Miura, S., et al. (2015) Kyoto Global Consensus Report on Helicobacter pylori Gastritis. Gut, 64, 1353-1367.
https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309252

[13]   Marshall, B.J. and Warren, J.R. (1984) Unidentified Curved Bacilli in the Stomach of Patients with Gastritis and Peptic Ulceration. The Lancet, 323, 1311-1315.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(84)91816-6

[14]   Huang, J.Q., Sridhar, S., Chen, Y. and Hunt, R.H. (1998) Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Gastric Cancer. Gastroenterology, 114, 1169-1179. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(98)70422-6

[15]   Suerbaum, S. and Michetti, P. (2002) Helicobacter pylori Infection. The New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 1175-1186. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra020542

[16]   Ahn, H.J. and Lee, D.S. (2015) Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Carcinogenesis. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 7, 455-465.

[17]   Ribeiro, R.B., Martins, H.S., Dos Santos, V.A., El Khouri, M., Duarte, L.S., Burattini, M.N., et al. (2010) Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori Colonization by Serologic Test (IgG) and Dyspepsia in Volunteers from the Countryside of Monte Negro, in the Brazilian Western Amazon Region. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 52, 203-206.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652010000400007

[18]   Asrat, D., Nilsson, I., Mengistu, Y., Kassa, E., Ashenafi, S., Ayenew, K., et al. (2004) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA Genotypes in Ethiopian Dyspeptic Patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42, 2682-2684.
https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.42.6.2682-2684.2004

[19]   Suzuki, R., Shiota, S. and Yamaoka, Y. (2012) Molecular Epidemiology, Population Genetics, and Pathogenic Role of Helicobacter pylori. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 12, 203-213.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2011.12.002

[20]   Atherton, J.C., Cao, P., Peek Jr., R.M., Tummuru, M.K., Blaser, M.J. and Cover, T.L. (1995) Mosaicism in Vacuolating Cytotoxin Alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Association of Specific vacA Types with Cytotoxin Production and Peptic Ulceration. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 17771-17777. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.270.30.17771

[21]   Suzuki, H., Hibi, T. and Marshall, B.J. (2007) Helicobacter pylori: Present Status and Future Prospects in Japan. Journal of Gastroenterology, 42, 1-15.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-006-1990-z

[22]   Watada, M., Shiota, S., Matsunari, O., Suzuki, R., Murakami, K., Fujioka, T., et al. (2011) Association between Helicobacter pylori cagA-Related Genes and Clinical Outcomes in Colombia and Japan. BMC Gastroenterology, 11, 141. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-11-141

[23]   Kim, J.Y., Kim, N., Nam, R.H., Suh, J.H., Chang, H., Lee, J.W., et al. (2014) Association of Polymorphisms in Virulence Factor of Helicobacter pylori and Gastroduodenal Diseases in South Korea. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 29, 984-991.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jgh.12509

[24]   Sasaki, T., Hirai, I. and Yamamoto, Y. (2009) Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in a Healthy Panamanian Population. Kansenshogaku Zasshi, 83, 127-132.
https://doi.org/10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi.83.127

[25]   Yamaoka, Y., Kodama, T., Kita, M., Imanishi, J., Kashima, K. and Graham, D.Y. (1999) Relation between Clinical Presentation, Helicobacter pylori Density, Interleukin 1Beta and 8 Production, and cagA Status. Gut, 45, 804-811. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.45.6.804

[26]   Shiota, S., Matsunari, O., Watada, M., Hanada, K. and Yamaoka, Y. (2010) Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: The Relationship between the Helicobacter pylori dupA Gene and Clinical Outcomes. Gut Pathogens, 2, 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1757-4749-2-13

[27]   Gomes, L.I., Rocha, G.A., Rocha, A.M., Soares, T.F., Oliveira, C.A., Bittencourt, P.F., et al. (2008) Lack of Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection with dupA-Positive Strains and Gastroduodenal Diseases in Brazilian Patients. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 298, 223-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2007.05.006

[28]   Souod, N., Sarshar, M., Dabiri, H., Momtaz, H., Kargar, M., Mohammadzadeh, A., et al. (2015) The Study of the oipA and dupA Genes in Helicobacter pylori Strains and Their Relationship with Different Gastroduodenal Diseases. Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench, 8, S47-S53.

[29]   Yamaoka, Y., Kikuchi, S., El-Zimaity, H.M., Gutierrez, O., Osato, M.S. and Graham, D.Y. (2002) Importance of Helicobacter pylori oipA in Clinical Presentation, Gastric Inflammation, and Mucosal Interleukin 8 Production. Gastroenterology, 123, 414-424.
https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.34781

 
 
Top