JBM  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2016
Harvesting Age and Time Effect of Andrographis paniculata Leaf on Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Abstract: In this study, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)-, 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis were used for the screening of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on three different germplasm accessions namely 11,341 (P), 11,248 (T) and 11,265 (H) of Malaysian Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) leaf. The anti-inflammatory activity by nitric oxide (NO) inhibition assay in relation to the different harvesting ages and times of A. paniculata leaf was determined through comparison by partial least-squares analysis (PLS) using SIMCA-P. The PLS allowed the separation and correlation between the NO assay with the phytochemical present due to the effects of different harvesting ages and times. From the PLS plots, conclusions were drawn with respect to the correlation between A. paniculata leaf metabolites with the anti-inflammatory results which showed that 180 days after transplanting (DAT) of morning session for accessions T and H, and evening for P gave the highest anti-inflammatory activity.
Cite this paper: Isha, A. , Yusof, N. and Ismail, I. (2016) Harvesting Age and Time Effect of Andrographis paniculata Leaf on Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 4, 175-188. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2016.412021.

[1]   Vijaykumar, K., Murthy, P.B., Kannababu, S., Syamasundar, B. and Subbaraju, G.V. (2007) Estimation of Andrographis paniculata Herb, Extracts and Dosage Forms. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 5, 27-39.

[2]   Gupta, P.P., Tandon, J.S. and Patnaik, G.K. (1998) Antiallergic Activity of Andrographolides Isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Pharmaceutical Biology, 36, 72-74.

[3]   Habtemariam, S. (1998) Andrographolide Inhibits the Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Induced Upregulation of ICAM-1 Expression and Endothelial-Monocyte Adhesion. Phytotherapy Research, 12, 37-40.<37:

[4]   Handa, S.S. and Sharma, A. (1990) Hepatoprotective Activity of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata against Carbon Tetrachloride. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 92, 276-283.

[5]   Matsuda, T., Kuroyanagi, M., Sugiyama, S., Umehara, K., Ueno, A. and Nishi, K. (1994) Cell Differentiation-Inducing Diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata Nees. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 42, 1216-1225.

[6]   Puri, A., Saxena, R., Saxena, R.P. and Saxena, K.C. (1993) Immunostimulant Agents from Andrographis paniculata. Journal of Natural Products, 56, 995-999.

[7]   Trivedi, N.P. and Rawal, U.M. (1998) Effect of Aqueous Extract of Andrographis paniculata on Liver Tumor. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 30, 318-322.

[8]   Zhang, X.F. and Tan, B.K. (2000) Antihyperglycaemic and Anti-Oxidant Properties of Andrographis paniculata in Normal and Diabetic Rats. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 27, 358-363.

[9]   Parichatikanond, W., Suthisisang, C., Dhepakson, P. and Herunsalee, A. (2010) Study of Anti Inflammatory Activities of the Pure Compounds from Andrographis paniculata (burm.f.) Nees and Their Effects on Gene Expression. International Immunopharmacology, 10, 1361- 1373.

[10]   Chandrasekaran, C.V., Thiyagarajan, P., Deepak, H.B. and Agarwal, A. (2011) In Vitro Modulation of LPS/Calcimycin Induced Inflammatory and Allergic Mediators by Pure Compounds of Andrographis paniculata (King of Bitters) Extract. International Immunopharmacology, 11, 79-84.

[11]   Kumar, A., Amit, A., Sujatha, M., Murali, B. and Anand, M.S. (2002) Effect of Aging on Andrographolide Content in Kalmegh. Journal of Natural Remedies, 292, 179-181.

[12]   Yusof, N.A., Isha, A., Ismail, I.S., Khatib, A., Shaari, K., Abas, F. and Rukayadi, Y. (2015) Infrared-Metabolomics Approach in Detecting Changes in Andrographis paniculata Metabolites Due to Different Harvesting Ages and Times. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95, 2533-2543.

[13]   Kim, H.Y., Choi, Y.H. and Verpoorte, R. (2010) NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis Plants. Nature Protocols, 5, 536-549.

[14]   Lee, K., Ab. Aziz, F., Syahida, A., Abas, F., Shaari, K., Israf, D. and Lajis, N. (2009) Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Curcumin-Like Diarylpentanoid Analogues for Anti-Inflam- matory, Antioxidant and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 44, 3195-3200.

[15]   de las Heras, B., Abad, M., Silván, A., Pascual, R., Bermejo, P., Rodriguez, B. and Villar, A. (2001) Effects of Six Diterpenes on Macrophage Eicosanoid Biosynthesis. Life Sciences, 70, 269-278.

[16]   Joselin, J. and Jeeva, S. (2014) Andrographis paniculata: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, 3, 1-15.

[17]   Maisuthisakul, P., Pasuk, S. and Ritthiruangdej, P. (2008) Relationship between Antioxidant Properties and Chemical Composition of Some Thai Plants. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21, 229-240.

[18]   Kim, J., Choi, J.N., Ku, K.M., Kang, D., Kim, J.S., Park, J.H.Y. and Lee, C.H. (2011) A Correlation between Antioxidant Activity and Metabolite Release during the Blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 75, 674-680.

[19]   Eriksson, L. (2006) Multi- and Megavariate Data Analysis. Umetrics AB, Umeå, Sweden.