Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a hereditary hematological disorder resulting from the presence of mutated form of hemoglobin, hemoglobin S (HbS)  . The prevalence of renal involvement in SCD ranges from 5 to 18%  . 1.3% of causes of End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) among patients less than 40 years old on regular haemodialysis in Khartoum/Sudan were due to SCD  . Sickle cell anaemia is associated with renal ischemia, glomerular diseases and nephrotic syndrome   . 40% of causes of mortality among adult SCD patients were due to renal failure  . Several published studies identified microalbuminuria and proteinuria as major renal manifestations among adult SCD patients   . In this study, we focused on renal manifestations of adult Sudanese patients with SCD.
2. Materials and Methods
This is a hospital based cross sectional descriptive study. Medical records of all patients diagnosed and admitted as sickle cell anaemia to the Academy Charity Teaching Hospital, Khartoum/Sudan during the period (01/01/2015 - 31/12/2015) were reviewed retrospectively, We collected socio demographics characteristics of the patients, clinical data, and presence or absence of renal manifestations, we included all patients diagnosed as sickle cell anaemia admitted to the Academy Charity Teaching Hospital, Khartoum/Sudan during the study period, we excluded patients less than 18 years old. The research was approved by Ethics and Research Comities in the Ministry of Health and the local hospital.
A total of 51 adult patients with SCD have been admitted to the hospital during the study period. 11 patients have renal manifestations (21.5%). The mean age of SCD patients with renal manifestations was 20.2 ± 1.9 years, 63.6% were males. The mean Hb
Table 1. Characteristics of the study population (n = 11).
1Mean ± SD; 2Number (percentage).
Table 2. Renal manifestation of patients with sickle cell anaemia (n = 11).
level was 6.9 ± 0.99 gm/dl. Five patients (45.5%) were presented with hemolytic crisis and six patients (54.5%) were needed blood transfusion (Table 1). Proteinuria was pre- sent among nine patients (81.8%), followed by haematuria in four patients (36.4%) and ESRF in two patients (18.2%) (Table 2).
In this study we found that 21.5% of adult SCD patients have renal manifestations. In published literature, prevalence of renal involvement in SCD range from 5 to 18 %  . In this study, proteinuria was the major renal manifestation among adult SCD patients. Several published studies identified microalbuminuria and proteinuria as major renal manifestations among adult SCD patients. In one study a urinary screening of asymptomatic SCD patients revealed microalbuminuria in 15.8% of patients  . Another study indicated that 22.3% of SCD patients had microalbuminuria  . Further studies pointed out that prevalence of proteinuria among adult SCD patients range between 26% and 68%  . Broad ranges of glomerular lesion were detected among SCD adults’ patients. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) were the most common glomerular lesions among adult SCD patients   .
In this study 36.4% of SCD patients with renal manifestations have haematuria. Previous studies indicated that the prevalence of haematuria among SCD patients ranged between 8.5% and 30%   . Haematuria usually resulted from sickling of red blood cells in renal medulla. However, haematuria can occur as a consequence of acute papillary necrosis or renal medullary carcinoma  .
In this study 18.2% of adult SCD patients with renal manifestations have renal dysfunction and ESRF. Patients with sickle cell anaemia have increased risk of development of CKD. 40% of causes of mortality among adult SCD patients were due to renal failure  . Factors determining the development of CKD among adult SCD patients were presence of proteinuria, hypertension and acute renal failure  .
There were limitations in our study. It was a retrospective review of the medical records. This prevented us from exploring more details on other renal manifestations of SCD that may be present in our patient.
In conclusion, the current study found that 21.5% of adult SCD patients had renal manifestations. Proteinuria was the major renal manifestation among our patients followed by haematuria and renal dysfunction.
 Banaga, A.S., Mohammed, E.B., Siddig, R.M., Salama, D.E., Elbashir, S.B., Khojali, M.O., Babiker, R.A., Elmusharaf, K. and Homeida, M.M. (2015) Causes of End Stage Renal Failure among Haemodialysis Patients in Khartoum State/Sudan. BMC Research Notes, 8, 502.
 Powars, D.R., Elliott-Mills, D.D., Chan, L., Niland, J., Hiti, A.L., Opas, L.M. and Johnson, C. (1991) Chronic Renal Failure in Sickle Cell Disease: Risk Factors, Clinical Course, and Mortality. Annals of Internal Medicine, 115, 614-620.
 Platt, O.S., Brambilla, D.J., Rosse, W.F., Milner, P.F., Castro, O., Steinberg, M.H. and Klug, P.P. (1994) Mortality in Sickle Cell Disease. Life Expectancy and Risk Factors for Early Death. The New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 1639-1644.
 Alvarez, O., Montane, B., Lopez, G., Wilkinson, J. and Miller, T. (2006) Early Blood Transfusions Protect against Microalbuminuria in Children with Sickle Cell Disease. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 47, 71-76.
 Iwalokun, B.A., Iwalokun, S.O., Hodonu, S.O., Aina, O.A. and Agomo, P.U. (2012) Evaluation of Microalbuminuria in Relation to Asymptomatic Bacteruria in Nigerian Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, 23, 1320-1330.
 Falk, R.J., Scheinman, J., Phillips, G., Orringer, E., Johnson, A. and Jennette, J.C. (1992) Prevalence and Pathologic Features of Sickle Cell Nephropathy and Response to Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme. The New England Journal of Medicine, 326, 910-915.
 Bhathena, D.B. and Sondheimer, J.H. (1991) The Glomerulopathy of Homozygous Sickle Hemoglobin (SS) Disease: Morphology and Pathogenesis. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 1, 1241-1252.
 Maigne, G., Ferlicot, S., Galacteros, F., Belenfant, X., Ulinski, T., Niaudet, P., Ronco, P., Godeau, B., Durrbach, A., Sahali, S., et al. (2010) Glomerular Lesions in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Medicine, 89, 18-27.
 Sesso, R., Almeida, M.A., Figueiredo, M.S. and Bordin, J.O. (1998) Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia or Sickle Cell Trait. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 31, 1257-1262.
 Yeruva, S.L., Paul, Y., Oneal, P. and Nouraie, M. (2016) Renal Failure in Sickle Cell Disease: Prevalence, Predictors of Disease, Mortality and Effect on Length of Hospital Stay. Hemoglobin, 40, No. 5.