OJMP  Vol.6 No.1 , January 2017
Feelings and Senses Given to the Music Present at the Hospital during Hemodynamic Procedures: Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Angioplasty
Abstract: Several studies indicate that music has soothing effects and is beneficial in reducing stress and anxiety in coronary patients. It is known that reactions to music are considered to be subjective, however, results of previous studies suggest that variables such as changes in heart rate, in cerebral blood flow and heart rate variability increase with a faster musical tempo, regardless of individual preferences. The effects of stress on the cardiovascular system have also been proven. However, the meanings assigned to music when used during hemodynamic procedures are unknown, as are the meanings of the experience of these procedures. The aim of this research is to understand the senses and feelings of music for patients undergoing hemodynamic procedures, identify and interpret the related fantasies and emotions and study the possibility of deploying in hospitals the “Musical Method for Hemodynamic Procedures”, being developed by the author. This research is based on a Clinical-Qualitative Methodology. The sampling method is the theoretical saturation. The semi structured interview was used in order to obtain data that were submitted to content analysis. The subjects are patients undergoing hemodynamic procedures in the Hospital SEMPER (Permanent Medical Service), Belo Horizonte, Brazil. We conclude that within the experience of listening to music while undergoing catheterization, 100% of the patients interviewed claimed they had overcome the experience of stress and felt calm, tranquility, peace and happiness. Some patients described the music as a companion, as something that diverts their attention from fear, transporting them to an imaginary place, to another dimension. The episodic memory, the capacity to recognize a musical excerpt for which the spatiotemporal context surrounding its former encounter could be recalled, was also important, with surprising results, in the case of patients who underwent catheterization in the presence of music and, later, angioplasty without the presence of music.
Cite this paper: de Albuquerque Paiva, S. , de Oliveira Moreira, J. and Silveira, F. (2017) Feelings and Senses Given to the Music Present at the Hospital during Hemodynamic Procedures: Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Angioplasty. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 6, 31-51. doi: 10.4236/ojmp.2017.61003.

[1]   Myskja, A. and Lindbaek, M. (2000) How Does Music Affect the Human Body? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 120, 1182-1185.

[2]   Thoma, M.V., Scholz, U. and Nater, U.M. (2011) Listening to Music and Physiological and Psychological Functioning: The Mediating Role of Emotion Regulation and Stress Reactivity. Psychology & Health, 27, 227-241.

[3]   Lai, Y.M. (1999) Effects of Music Listening on Depressed Women in Taiwan. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 20, 229-246.

[4]   Stacciarini, J.M. (2008) Focus Groups: Examining a Community-Based Group Intervention for Depressed Puerto Rican Women. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 29, 679-700.

[5]   Ying, L.C., Levy, V., Shan, C.O., Hung, T.W. and Wah, W.K. (2001) A Qualitative Study of the Perceptions of Hong Kong Chinese Women during Caesarean Section under Regional Anesthesia. Midwifery, 17, 115-122.

[6]   Barry, P., O’Callaghan, C., Wheeler, G. and Grocke, D. (2010) Music Therapy CD Creation for Initial Pediatric Radiation Therapy: A Mixed Methods Analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 47, 233-263.

[7]   Barrera, M.E., Rykov, M.H. and Doyle, S.L. (2002) The Effects of Interactive Music Therapy on Hospitalized Children with Cancer: A Pilot Study. Psycho-Oncology, 11, 379-388.

[8]   O’Callaghan, C.C., Homby, C.J., Pearson, E.J. and Ball, D.L. (2010) Oncology Staff Reflections about a 52-Year-Old Staff Christmas Choir: Constructivist Research. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 13, 1421-1425.

[9]   Nguyen, T.N., Nilsson, S., Hellstrom, A.L. and Bengtson, A. (2010) Music Therapy to Reduce Pain and Anxiety in Children with Cancer Undergoing Lumbar Puncture: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 27, 146-155.

[10]   Nilsson, S., Kokinsk, E., Nilsson, U., Sidenvall, B. and Enskar, K. (2009) School-Aged Children’s Experiences of Postoperative Music Medicine on Pain, Distress, and Anxiety. Pediatric Anesthesia, 19, 1184-1190.

[11]   Heaton, P. and Allen, R. (2009) “With Concord of Sweet Sounds...”: New Perspectives on the Diversity of Musical Experience in Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Conditions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 318-325.

[12]   Whitehead-Pleaux, A.M., Zebrowski, N., Baryza, M.J. and Sheridan, R.L. (2007) Exploring the Effects of Music Therapy on Pediatric Pain: Phase 1. Journal of Music Therapy, 44, 217-241.

[13]   Primack, B.A., Nuzzo, E., Rice, K.R. and Sargent, J.D. (2011) Alcohol Brand Appearances in US Popular Music. Addiction, 107, 557-566.

[14]   Walker, I.J. and Nordin-Bates, S.M. (2010) Performance Anxiety Experiences of Professional Ballet Dancers: The Importance of Control. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 14, 133-145.

[15]   Choi, C.M. (2010) A Pilot Analysis of the Psychological Themes Found during the Caring at Columbia-Music Therapy Program with Refugee Adolescents from North Korea. Journal of Music Therapy, 47, 380-407.

[16]   Okamoto, T., Ando, M., Morita, T., Hirai, K., Kawamura, R., Mitsunori, M., Sato, K. and Shima, Y. (2009) Religious Care Required for Japanese Terminally Ill Patients with Cancer from the Perspective of Bereaved Family Members. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, 27, 50-54.

[17]   Bums, S.J., Harbuz, M.S., Hucklebridge, F. and Bunt, L. (2001) A Pilot Study into the Therapeutic Effects of Music Therapy at a Cancer Help Center. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 7, 48-56.

[18]   Lonsdale, A.J. and North, A.C. (2011) Why Do We Listen to Music? A Uses and Gratifications Analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 102, 108-134.

[19]   Lord, V.M., Cave, P., Hume, V.J., Flude, E.J., Evans, A., Kelly, J.L., Polkey, M.I. and Hopkinson, N.S. (2010) Singing Teaching as a Therapy for Chronic Respiratory Disease—A Randomized Controlled Trial and Qualitative Evaluation. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 10, 41.

[20]   Gotell, E., Brown, S. and Ekman, S.L. (2009) The Influence of Caregiver Singing and Background Music on Vocally Expressed Emotions and Moods in Dementia Care: A Qualitative Analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46, 422-430.

[21]   Smeijsters, H. and van Den Hurrk, J. (1999) Music Therapy Helping to Work through Grief and Finding a Personal Identity. Journal of Music Therapy, 36, 222-252.

[22]   Paiva, S.A. (2010) Quando o mal estar social adoece o coracao: O infarto à luz da hiper-modernidade. Annablume, Sao Paulo.

[23]   Faraj, M. (2005) As bases fisiológicas do aparelho cardiovascular. In: Filho, P.W.C., Barbosa, M.M. and Chula, E.D., Eds., Cardiologia: Sociedade Mineira de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro: Medsi; Guanabara Koogan.

[24]   Brandao, J.S. (1986) Mitologia Grega. Vozes, Petrópolis.

[25]   Freud, S. (1969) Edicao Standard Brasileira das Obras Psicológicas Completas de Sigmund Freud: v.21: O futuro de uma ilusao; o mal-estar na civilizacao e outros trabalhos. Imago, Rio de Janeiro.

[26]   Freud, S. (1969) Edicao Standard Brasileira das Obras Psicológicas Completas de Sigmund Freud: v.21: O Mal Estar na Civilizacao. Imago, Rio de Janeiro.

[27]   Jung, C.G. (1959) Face to Face, Interview. BBC, NTSC: son., Küsnacht.

[28]   Hull, R.F.C. and McGuire, W. (1977) C.G. Jung: Entrevistas e Encontros. CULTRIX, Sao Paulo.

[29]   Esler, M., Schwarz, R. and Alvarenga, M. (2008) Mental Stress Is a Cause of Cardiovascular Diseases: From Skepticism to Certainty. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

[30]   Dimsdale, J.E. (2008) Psychological Stress and Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 51, 1237-1246.

[31]   Guzzetta, C.E. (1989) Effects of Relaxation and Music Therapy on Patients in a Coronary Care Unit with Presumptive Acute Myocardial Infarction. Heart & Lung, 18, 609-616.

[32]   Bernardi, L., Porta, C., Casucci, G., Balsamo, R., Bernardi, R. and Bernardi, N.F., et al. (2009) Dynamic Interactions between Musical, Cardiovascular, and Cerebral Rhythms in Humans. Circulation, 119, 3171-3180.

[33]   Trappe, H.J. (2010) The Effects of Music on the Cardiovascular System and Cardiovascular Health. Heart, 96, 1868-1871.

[34]   Naska, A., Oikonomou, E., Trichopoulou, A., Psaltopoulou, T. and Trichopoulos, D. (2007) Siesta in Healthy Adults and Coronary Mortality in the General Population. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167, 296-301.

[35]   Hoffmann, D. (1986) O Controle Natural do Stress. Ground, Sao Paulo.

[36]   Pires do Rio, R. (1996) O Fascínio do Stress: Vencendo desafios num mundo em transformacao. Qualitymark/Dunya, Rio de Janeiro.

[37]   Burg, M.M. (2007) Stress, Behavior & Heart Disease. 2002. Scientific Eletronic. Library Online-Windows Internet Explorer.

[38]   Paiva, S.A. (2002) Mito: Salvar Sempre? Os Limites do Humano. Revista de Cardiologia-órgao de Divulgacao Científica da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia/MG, Sociedade Mineira de Cardiologia. Suplemento Especial Aspectos Psicológicos e Cardiologia, 8.

[39]   Cateterismo Cardíaco, Portal Sao Francisco (2011).

[40]   Galway, J. (1987) A Música no Tempo. Redigido por William Mann. Martins Fontes, Sao Paulo.

[41]   Turato, E.R. (2008) Tratado da Metodologia da Pesquisa Clínico-Qualitativa: Construcao teórico-epistemológica, discussao comparada e aplicacao nas áreas da saúde e humanas. Vozes, Petrópolis.

[42]   Bardin, L. (1977) Análise de Conteúdo. Edicoes 70, Lisboa.

[43]   Jung, C.G. (1984) A Dinamica do Inconsciente. Vozes, Petrópolis.

[44]   Platel, H., Baron, J.C., Desgranges, B., Bernard, F. and Eustache, F. (2003) Semantic and Episodic Memory of Music are Subserved by Distinct Neural Networks. Neuroimage, 20, 244-256.

[45]   Platel, H. (2005) Functional Neuroimaging of Semantic and Episodic Musical Memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1060, 136-147.

[46]   Baumgartner, T., Lutz, K., Schmidt, C.F. and Jancke, L. (2006) The Emotional Power of Music: How Music Enhances the Feeling of Affective Pictures. Brain Research, 1075, 151-164.

[47]   Blood, A.J. and Zatorre, R.J. (2001) Intensely Pleasurable Responses to Music Correlate with Activity in Brain Regions Implicated in Reward and Emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 11818-11823.

[48]   Baumgartner, T., Esslen, M. and Jancke, L. (2006) From Emotion Perception to Emotion Experience: Emotions Evoked by Pictures and Classical Music. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 60, 34-43.

[49]   Baumgartner, T., Willi, M. and Jancke, L. (2007) Modulation of Corticospinal Activity by Strong Emotions Evoked by Pictures and Classical Music: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study. Neuroreport, 18, 261-265.

[50]   Buchanan, T.W. (2007) Retrieval of Emotional Memories. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 761-779.

[51]   Eschrich, S., Münte, T.F. and Altenmüller, E.O. (2008) Unforgettable Film Music: The Role of Emotion in Episodic Long-Term Memory for Music. BMC Neuroscience, 9, 48.

[52]   Jancke, L. (2008) Music, Memory and Emotion. Journal of Biology, 7, 21.

[53]   Craver, C.F. and Darden, L. (2001) Discovering Mechanisms in Neurobiology: The Case of Spatial Memory. In: Machamer, P., Grush, R. and McLaughlin, P., Eds., Theory and Method in Neuroscience, Pittsburgh University Press, Pittsburgh, 112-137.

[54]   Dokic, J. (2001) Is Memory Purely Preservative? In: Hoerl, C. and McCormack, T. Eds., Time and Memory, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 213-232.

[55]   Hoerl, C. (2007) Episodic Memory, Autobiographical Memory, Narrative: On Three Key Notions in Current Approaches to Memory Development. Philosophical Psychology, 20, 621-640.

[56]   Rubin, D.C. (2006) The Basic-Systems Model of Episodic Memory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 277-311.

[57]   Tulving, E. (1983) Elements of Episodic Memory. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[58]   Tulving, E. (2002) Episodic Memory: From Mind to Brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 1-25.

[59]   Tulving, E. (2005) Episodic Memory and Autonoesis: Uniquely Human? In: Terrace, H.S. and Metcalfe, J., Eds., The Missing Link in Cognition: Self-Knowing Consciousness in Man and Animals, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 3-56.

[60]   Halpern, A.R. and Müllensiefen, D. (2007) Effects of Timbre and Tempo Change on Memory for Music. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 1371-1384.

[61]   Levitin, D.J. (1994) Absolute Memory for Musical Pitch: Evidence from the Production of Learned Melodies. Perception & Psychophysics, 56, 414-423.

[62]   Peynircioglu, Z.F., Tekcan, A.I., Wagner, J.L., Baxter, T.L. and Shaffer, S.D. (1998) Name or Hum That Tune: Feeling of Knowing for Music. Memory & Cognition, 26, 1131-1137.

[63]   Kohlmetz, C., Müller, S.V., Nager, W., Münte, T.F. and Altenmüller, E. (2003) Selective Loss of Timbre Perception for Keyboard and Percussion Instruments Following a Right Temporal Lesion. Neurocase, 9, 86-93.

[64]   Peretz, I. and Coltheart, M. (2003) Modularity of Music Processing. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 688-691.

[65]   Zatorre, R.J., Belin, P. and Penhune, V.B. (2002) Structure and Function of Auditory Cortex: Music and Speech. Trends Cognitive Sciences, 6, 37-46.

[66]   Cirlot, J.-E. (1984) Dicionário dos Símbolos. Editora Moraes, Sao Paulo, 84.

[67]   Jung, C.G. (1875-1961) Os Arquétipos e o Inconsciente Coletivo. Petrópolis, Editora, Vozes, Petrópolis, Vol. 9/1, 87, OC.