OJL  Vol.5 No.4 , December 2016
Teachers’ Perception of Cyberbullying in Lebanese Public School
Abstract: Cyberbullying has become prevalent in schools with the increased spread and usage of technology. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which teachers in Lebanon were aware of the concept of cyber bullying; as well as to investigate their beliefs of the best interventional preventional strategies to combat this phenomenon. The study surveyed 149 public school teachers from the different governorates in Lebanon. A survey consisting of 40 items was developed to address teachers’ perception of cyberbullying, around 4 areas: 1) the impact of cyberbullying on students, 2) the necessary interventional strategies for cyberbullying inside the school, 3) the suitable interventional strategies for cyberbullying outside the school, and 4) the possible preventional strategies for a cyberbullying program. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 for windows. Results indicated that school teachers recognized the gross negative impacts of cyberbullying on students. While teachers suggested anit-cyberbullying inter-ventional strategies inside the school, they were less hesitant to suggest strategies to confront cyberbullying when students were away from school. They were also indeterminate concerning preventional strategies of this phenomenon. Teachers’ perceptions highlight the importance of their active role and the importance of building students character as two major keys for counteracting cyberbullying and designing an efficient anti-cyberbullying program.
Cite this paper: Ghamrawi, N. , Ghamrawi, N. and Shal, T. (2016) Teachers’ Perception of Cyberbullying in Lebanese Public School. Open Journal of Leadership, 5, 95-109. doi: 10.4236/ojl.2016.54009.

[1]   Banks, R. (1997). Bullying in Schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Champaign IL. ED407154.

[2]   Beran, T., & Li, Q. (2005). Cyber-Harassment: A Study of New Method for an Old Behavior. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32, 265-277.

[3]   Biggs, B. K., Vernberg, E. M., Twemlow, S. W., Fonagy, P., & Dill, E. J. (2008). Teacher Adherence and Its Relation to Teacher Attitudes and Student Outcomes in an Elementary School-Based Violence Prevention Program. School Psychology Review, 37, 533-549.

[4]   Cooper, R., Slavin, R. E., & Madden, N. A. (1998). Success for All: Improving the Quality of Implementation of Whole-School Change through the Use of a National Reform Network. Education and Urban Society, 30, 385-408.

[5]   CRDP (2015). Safety of Children on the Internet: A National Study on the Impact of the Internet on Children in Lebanon.

[6]   Dehue, F., Bolman C., & Vollink, T. (2008). Cyberbullying: Youngsters’ Experiences and Parental Perception. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 11, 217-223.

[7]   Deng, L., & Tavares, N. J. (2013). From Moodle to Facebook: Exploring Students’ Motivation and Experiences in Online Communities. Computers and Education, 68, 167-176.

[8]   Espelange, D., Anderman, E. M., Brown, V. E., Jones, A., Lane, K. L., McMahon, S. D., Reddy, L. A., & Reynolds, C. R. (2013). Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed against Teachers: Recommendations for a National Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda. American Psychologist, 68, 75-87.

[9]   Ferguson, C. J., Miguel, C. S., Kilburn, J. C., & Sanchez, P. (2007). The Effectiveness of School-Based Anti-Bullying Programs: A Meta-Analytic Review. Criminal Justice Review, 32, 401-414.

[10]   Ghamrawi, N., & Jammal, K. (2013). Cyberbullying in Schools: A New Technique for an Old Practice! Leadership Awareness versus School Reality. Global Advanced Research Journal of Educational Research and Review, 2, 246-253.

[11]   Griezel, L., Finger, L. R., Bodkin-Andrews, G. H., Craven, R. G., & Yeung, A. (2012). Uncovering the Structure of and Gender and Developmental Differences in Cyber Bullying. Journal Of Educational Research, 105, 442-455.

[12]   Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: An Exploratory Analysis of Factors Related to Offending and Victimization. Deviant Behavior, 29, 129-156.

[13]   Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14, 206-221.

[14]   Hirschstein, M. K., Edstrom, L. V. S., Frey, K. S., Snell, J. L., & MacKenzie, E. P. (2007). Walking the Talk in Bullying Prevention: Teacher Implementation Variables Related to Initial Impact of the Steps to Respect Program. School Psychology Review, 36, 3-21.

[15]   Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic Bullying among Middle School Students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S22-S30.

[16]   Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S. P., & Agatston, P. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: Bullying in the Digital Age. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

[17]   Kyriacou, C., & Zuin, A. (2015). Characterizing the Cyberbullying of Teachers by Pupils. The Psychology of Education Review, 39, 26-30.

[18]   Li, Q. (2008). Cyberbullying in Schools: An Examination of Preservice Teachers’ Perception. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 34, 75-90.

[19]   Lickona, T. (1991). Educating for Character. New York: Banta.

[20]   Lines, D. (2008). The Bullies: Understanding Bullies and Bullying. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

[21]   Masseni, D. (2014). Why Schools Are Spooked by Social Media? Australia: The Sponsored Group.

[22]   Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M. D., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simmons Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying Behavior among US Youth: Prevalence and Association with Psychosocial Adjustment. JAMA, 285, 2094-2100.

[23]   Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

[24]   Olweus, D., & Kallestad, J. H. (2010). The Olweus Bullyig Prevention Program: Effects of Classroom Components at Different Grade Levels. In K. Oseterman (Ed.), Indirect and Diret Aggression (pp. 113-131). New York: Peter Lang.

[25]   Raskauskas, J., & Stoltz, A. D. (2007). Involvement in Traditional and Electronic Bullying among Adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 43, 564-575.

[26]   Rigby, K. (2003). Consequences of Bullying in Schools. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 583-590.

[27]   Roland, E. (2002). Bullying, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Thoughts. Educational Research, 44, 55-67.

[28]   Sassu, K. A. (2006). Teachers’ Perceptions of Bullying: An Investigation of Reported Characteristic Behaviors and the Likelihood of Intervention in Response to Overtly and Relationally Aggressive Behavior. Doctoral Dissertation, Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut.

[29]   Shal, T. (2016). Investigating the Potential of Web 2.0 ICT Apps as Tools for Supporting Differentiated Leadership Development by Lebanese School Principlas. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Beirut: Lebanese University.

[30]   Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another Main Type of Bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 147-154.

[31]   Smith, P. K. (2014). Understanding School Bullying: Its Nature and Prevention Strategies. London: Sage.

[32]   Smith, P. K., & Brain, P. (2000). Bullying in Schools: Lessons from Two Decades of Research. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 1-9.<1::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-7

[33]   Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its Nature and Impact in Secondary Schools. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 376-385.

[34]   Stauffer, S., Heath, M. A., Coyne, M. S., & Ferrin, S. (2012). High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Strategies. Psychology in the Schools, 49, 353-367.

[35]   Stephens, P. (2011). Preventing and Confronting School Bullying: A Comparative Study of Two National Programmes in Norway. British Educational Research Journal, 37, 381-400.

[36]   Willard, N. (2005). Educator’s Guide to Cyberbullying Addressing the Harm Caused by Outline Social Cruelty.

[37]   Willard, N. E. (2007). The Authority and Responsibility of School Oficials in Responding to Cyberbullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 64-65.

[38]   Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004a). Youth Engaging In Online Harassment: Associations with Caregiver-Child Relationships, Internet Use, and Personal Characteristics. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 319-336.

[39]   Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004b). Online Aggressor/Targets, Aggressors, and Targets: A Comparison of Associated Characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1308-1316.

[40]   Yilmaz, H. (2010). An Examination of Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions about Cyberbullying. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 6, 263-270.