JACEN  Vol.6 No.1 , February 2017
Hydrochemistry for the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Korea
Abstract: Understanding of the aquifer hydraulic properties and hydrochemical characteristics of water is crucial for management plan and study skims in the target area, and flow motions and chemical species of groundwater are regarded as precious information on the geological history of the aquifers and the suitability of various usages. Cations and anions of groundwater are used to estimate the characteristics and origin of groundwater. In this study, we try to evaluate the quality of groundwater based on the comparison of the physiochemical characteristics and distribution of cations and anions in groundwater from rural areas. Therefore we focused on the evaluation of groundwater as some specific purposes such as agricultural and industrial use, general types of groundwater, lithological origin of chemical component in groundwater. In this point of view, major objectives of this study were grouped as following three categories: 1) quality assessment of groundwater as a special usage (agricultural, industrial); 2) determination of groundwater types; 3) tracing of ion sources of groundwater. The quality of agricultural water was evaluated using SAR, sodium (%), RSC, PI, SSP, MH, PS, and Kelly’s ratio, and was classified as SAR (Excellent (100%)), Sodium ((Excellent (34%), Good (55%), Permissible (9%), Doubtful (1.6%), Unsuitable (0.4%)), RSC (Good (95.7%), Medium (3.5%), Bad (0.8%)), PI((Excellent (40.6%), Good (59%), Unsuitable (0.4%)), SSP ((Excellent (26.3%), Good (59.8%), Fair (13.1%), Poor (0.8%)), MH ((Acceptable (94.4%), Non-Acceptable (5.6%)), Kelly’s Ratio ((Permissible (93%), Non-Permissible (7%)), PS ((Excellent to Good (98%), Good to Injurious (1.2%), and Injurious to Unsatisfactory (0.2%)). Evaluation based on the Wilcox diagram was classified as “excellent to good” or “good to permissible”, and the water quality evaluated using the U.S. salinity Laboratory’s Diagram was classified as C1S1 (Excellent/Excellent) and C2S1 (Good/Excellent). And, in the applications of two factors of Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Corrosive ratio (CR), we could get similar results for defining the suitabilities of groundwater for the industrial purpose. And the groundwater samples were also classified groundwater using the Piper diagram and estimated the origin of ions using the Gibbs and Chadah diagram, and the classifications based on the Piper diagram showed that the types of the groundwater are type and type. And, estimation of dominance type (evaporation, rock, precipitation) based on the Gibbs diagram showed that the origin of anion and cation in groundwater are from the rock-dominance, and the estimation of origin of anions using the Chadha diagram showed that the most of the ionic species was originated from the interactions between alkaline earths and alkali metals contained in the soil. And through the source-rock deduction followed by the comparison of Gibbs and Chadah diagram, it was shown that the chemical components in the groundwater were mostly induced from the water-rock deduction and major types of groundwater samples following the Chadah diagram were categorized such as following group types: dolomite type, gypsum type, alkaline and alkaline earth type.
Cite this paper: Hwang, J. , Park, S. , Kim, H. , Kim, M. , Jo, H. , Kim, J. , Lee, G. , Shin, I. and Kim, T. (2017) Hydrochemistry for the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Korea. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 6, 1-29. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2017.61001.

[1]   Raju, N.J., Shukla, U.K. and Ram, P. (2011) Hydrogeochemistry for the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Varanasi: A Fast-Urbanizing Center in Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 173, 279-300.

[2]   Raju, N.J., Ram, P. and Gossel, W. (2014) Evaluation of Groundwater Vulnerability in the Lower Varuna Catchment Area, Uttar Pradesh, India Using AVI Concept. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 83, 273-278.

[3]   Toumi, N., Hussein, B.H., Rafrafi, S. and El Kassas, N. (2015) Groundwater Quality and Hydrochemical Properties of Al-Ula Region, Saudi Arabia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 84.

[4]   Reddy, M.R., Raju, N.J., Reddy, Y.V. and Reddy, T.V.K. (2000) Water Resource Development and Management in the Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Geology, 39, 342-352.

[5]   Jiang, Y., Wu, Y., Groves, C., Yuan, D. and Kambesis, P. (2009) Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting the Groundwater Quality in the Nandong Karst Underground River System in Yunan, China. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 109, 49-61.

[6]   Nandimandalam, J.R. (2012) Evaluation of Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Pleistocene Aquifers of Middle Ganga Plain, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 65, 1291-1308.

[7]   Raju, N.J., Dey, S., Gossel, W. and Wycisk, P. (2012) Fluoride Hazard and Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Semi-Arid Upper Panda River Basin, Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57, 1433-1452.

[8]   Abdesselam, S., Halitim, A., Jan, A., Trolard, F. and Bourrié, G. (2013) Anthropogenic Contamination of Groundwater with Nitrate in Arid Region: Case Study of Southern Hodna (Algeria). Environmental Earth Sciences, 70, 2129-2141.

[9]   Khashogji, M.S. and El Maghraby, M.M.S. (2013) Evaluation of Groundwater Resources for Drinking and Agricultural Purposes, Abar Al Mashi Area, South Al Madinah Al Munawarah City, Saudi Arabia. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6, 3929- 3942.

[10]   Alaya, M.B., Saidi, S., Zemni, T. and Zargouni, F. (2014) Suitability Assessment of Deep Groundwater for Drinking and Irrigation Use in the Djeffara Aquifers (Northern Gabes, South-Eastern Tunisia). Environmental Earth Sciences, 71, 3387- 3421.

[11]   Iranmanesh, A., Locke, R.A. and Wimmer, B.T. (2014) Multivariate Statistical Evaluation of Groundwater Compliance Data from the Illinois Basin-Decatur Project. Energy Proceedia, 63, 3182-3194.

[12]   Singh, S., Raju, N.J., Gossel, W. and Wycisk, P. (2015) Assessment of Pollution Potential of Leachate from the Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Site and Its Impact on Groundwater Quality, Varanasi Environs, India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 9, 131.

[13]   Vasanthavigar, M., Srinivasamoorthy, K., Ganthi, R.R., Vijayaragavan, K. and Saram, V.S. (2012) Characterization and Quality Assessment of Groundwater with a Special Emphasis on Irrigation Utility: Thirumanimuttar Sub-Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5, 245-258.

[14]   Jawad Alobaidy, A.H.M., Al-Sameraiy, M.A., Kadhem, A.J. and Mageed, A.A. (2010) Evaluation of Treated Municipal Wastewater Quality for Irrigation. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1, 216-225.

[15]   Barick, S.R. and Ratha, B.K. (2014) Hydro-Chemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality of Hial Area, Bolangir District, Odisha, India. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 2, 22-28.

[16]   Singh, S., Ruju, N.J. and Ramakrishna, C. (2015) Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Domestic and Irrigation Use in Parts of the Chandauli-Varnashi Region, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 572-587.

[17]   Kaka, E.A., Akiti, T.T., Nartey, V.K., Bam, E.K.P. and Adomako, D. (2011) Hydrochemistry and Evaluation of Groundwater Stability for Irrigation and Drinking Purpose in the Southeastern Volta River Basin: Manya Korobo Area, Ghana. Elixir Agriculture, 39, 4973-4807.

[18]   Chakraborty, B., Adhikari, K., Sadhu, K. and Gangopadhyay, A. (2012) Hydrochemistry of Aquifers as a Function of Underground Mining of Gondwana Coal: Eastern Fringe of Raniganj Coalfield, India. International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, 2, 310-322.

[19]   Asiwaju-Bello, Y.A., Olabode, F.O., Duvbiama, O.A., Iyamu, J.O., Adeyemo, A.A. and Onigbinde, M.T. (2013) Hydrochemical Evaluation of Groundwater in Akura Area, Southwestern Nigeria, for Irrigation Purpose. European International Journal of Science and Technology, 2, 235-249.

[20]   Badmus, B.S., Ozebo, V.C., Idowu, O.A., Ganiyu, S.A. and Olurin, O.T. (2014) Groundwater Assessment of Hand Dug Wells around Open Landfill in Ibadan Metropolis for domestic and Irrigation Purpose. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 1412-1424.

[21]   Shyam, R. and Kalwania, G.S. (2011) Ground Water Chemistry: A Case Study of Eastern Part of Sikar City (Rajastan), India. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Dindigul, 2, 378-389.

[22]   Obienfuna, G.I. and Orazulike, D.M. (2011) The Hydrochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Groundwater in Semiarid Yola Area, Northeast, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 3, 400-416.

[23]   Ishaku, J.M., Ahmed, A.S. and Abubakar, M.A. (2011) Assessment of Groundwater Quality Using Chemical Indicies and GIS Mapping in Jada Area, Northeastern Nigeria. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geochemical Engineering, 1, 35-60.

[24]   Wilcox, L.V. (1955) Classification and Use of Irrigation Water. USDA, Washington DC. (Circular 969)

[25]   US Salinity Laboratory (1954) Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkaline Soils. Handbook No. 60, US Department of Agriculture, 160.

[26]   Rao, N.S., Vidyasagar, G., Rao, P.S. and Bhanumurthy, P. (2014) Chemistry and Quality of Groundwater in a Coastal Region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Applied Water Science, 1-10.

[27]   Grisak, G.E., Jackson, R.E. and Pickens, J.F. (1978) Monitoring Ground Water Quality: The Technical Difficulties. In: Everett, L.G. and Schmidt, K.D., Eds., Establishment of Water Quality Monitoring Program, American Water Resources Association.

[28]   Gibb, J.P., Sculler, R.M. and Griffin, R.A. (1981) Procedures for the Collection of Representative Water Quality Data from Monitoring Wells. Cooperative Groundwater Report 7, Illinois State Water and Geological Surveys, Champaign, IL, 61.

[29]   Schuller, R.M., Gibb, J.P. and Griffin, R.A. (1995) Recommended Sampling Procedures for Monitoring Wells. Ground-Water Monitoring Review, 192, 42-46.

[30]   Claassen, H.C. (1982) Guidelines and Techniques for Obtaining Water Samples That Accurately Represent the Water Chemistry of an Aquifer. Open-File Report 82-1024, US Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO, 49 p.

[31]   USEPA, Handbook, Groundwater, Volume II: Methodology, EPA/625/6-900/016b, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Center for Environmental Research Information, Washington DC, 141 p.

[32]   Jalali, M. (2009) Phosphorous Concentration, Solubility and Species in the Groundwater in a Semi-Arid Basin, Southern Malayer, Western Iran. Environmental Geology, 57, 1011-1020.

[33]   Jalali, M. (2011) Nitrate Pollution of Groundwater in Toyserkan, Western Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62, 907-913.

[34]   Marghade, D., Malpe, D.B. and Zade, A.B. (2011) Geochemical Characterization of Groundwater from Northeastern Part of Nagpur Urban, Central India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62, 1419-1430.

[35]   Todd, D.K. (1980) Groundwater Hydrology. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[36]   Rao, N.S. (2006) Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in a Part of Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Geology, 49, 413-429.

[37]   Kumar, M., Kumari, K., Ramanathan, A.L. and Saxena, R. (2007) A Comparative Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation and Drinking Purposes in Two Intensively Cultivated Districts of Punjab, India. Environmental Geology, 53, 553-574.

[38]   Doneen, L.D. (1964) Notes on Water Quality in Agriculture. Published as a Water Science and Engineering, Paper 4001, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, University of California, Davis.

[39]   Hem, J.D. (1985) Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Waters. United States Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 1473, USGS, Washington DC.

[40]   Paliwal, K.V. (1972) Irrigation with Saline Water, Monogram No. 2 (New Series). IARI, New Delhi, 198.

[41]   Kelly, W.P. (1940) Permissible Composition and Concentration of Irrigated Waters. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 66, 607-613.

[42]   Sundaray, S.K., Nayak, B.B. and Bhatta, D. (2009) Environmental Studies on River Water Quality with Reference to Suitability for Agricultural Purposes: Mahanadi River Estuarine System, India—A Case Study. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 155, 227-243.

[43]   Doneen, L.D. (1954) Salination of Soil by Salts in the Irrigation Water. American Geophysical Union Transactions, 35, 943-950.

[44]   Patel, P., Raju, N.J., Raja Reddy, B.C.S., Suresh, U., Gossel, W. and Wycisk, P. (2016) Geochemical Process and Multivariate Statistical Analysis for the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Swarnamukhi River Basin, Andra Pradesh, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75, 611.

[45]   Piper, A.M. (1944) A Graphical Interpretation of Water Analysis. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union, 25, 914-928.

[46]   Gibbs, R.J. (1970) Mechanisms Controlling World Water Chemistry. Science, 170, 1088-1090.

[47]   Chadha, D.K. (1999) A Proposed New Diagram for Geochemical Classification of Natural Waters and Interpretation of Chemical Data. Hydrogeology Journal, 7, 431-439.

[48]   Ayers, R.S. and Westcot, D.W. (1985) Water Quality for Agriculture. FAO Irrigation And Drainage Paper No. 29 Rev. 1, 1-109.

[49]   Wilcox, L.V. (1948) Classification and Use of Irrigation Waters. US Department of Agriculture, Washington. (Circular 962)

[50]   Raghunath, H.M. (1987) Groundwater. Wiley Eastern Ltd., Delhi.

[51]   Eaton, F.M. (1950) Significance of Carbonates in Irrigation Waters. Soil Science, 69, 123-133.

[52]   Szabolcs, I. and Darab, C. (1964) The Influence of Irrigation Water of High Sodium Carbonate Content of Soils. Proceedings of 8th International Congress of ISSS, Trans II, 803-812.

[53]   Rasouli, F., Pouya, A.K. and Cheraghi, S.A.M. (2012) Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Assessment of the Kor-Sivand Basin, Fars Province, Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184, 4861-4877.

[54]   Paliwal, K.V. (1967) Effect of Gypsum Application on the Quality of Irrigation Waters. The Madras Agricultural Journal, 59, 646-647.

[55]   ASTM (1998) Standard Practice for Calculation and Adjustment of the Langelier Saturation Index for Reverse Osmosis. D3739-D3794.

[56]   Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L. and Stensel, H.D. (2003) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

[57]   Garrels, R.M. (1976) A Survey of Low Temperature Water Mineral Relations, in Interpretation of Environmental Isotope and Hydrogeochemical Data in Groundwater Hydrology. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 65-84.

[58]   Datta, P.S. and Tyagi, S.K. (1996) Major Ion Chemistry of Groundwater in Delhi Area: Chemical Weathering Processes and Groundwater Flow Regime. Journal of Geological Society of India, 47, 179-188.

[59]   Lakshmanan, E., Kannan, R. and Kumar, M.S. (2003) Major Ion Chemistry and Identification of Hydrochemical Processes of Groundwater in a Part of Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Geoscience, 10, 156-166.

[60]   Garrrels, R.M. and Mackenzie, F.T (1967) Origin of the Chemical Composition of Some Springs and Lakes. In: Stumm, W., Ed., Equlibrium Concepts in Natural Water Systems, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 222-242.

[61]   Hounslaw. W. (1995) Water Quality Data: Analysis and Interpretation. CRC Press, Boca Raton.