Back
 OJG  Vol.6 No.12 , December 2016
Investigating the Stratigraphy and the Gender of Nano-Fossils in the Lower Part of the Abtalkh Formation in Kopet Dagh Zone
Abstract: A structural-sediment zone of Kopet Dagh is one of the geological units. The southern Kopet Dagh zone is limited to Binalood and the northern limit is with the Turan plateau fault and is created as sediment (Trough) in the late Triassic. The main fault zones are divided into two groups of foundation faults and overthrust. Kopet Dagh is a giant gas field between Turkmenistan, Iran and Afghanistan. Most areas of the region have a temperate climate so cold. From the middle Cambrian to the present, five phases of orogeny have occurred in the region. The geographic location of the study area is 37°43'03"N latitude and 55°35'47"E. In terms of stratigraphic formations in the Cretaceous period, Kopet Dagh area, respectively, is from old to new, including: Shurijeh, Zard, Tiregan, Sar Cheshmeh, Sanganeh, Aitamir, Abderaz, Abtalkh, Neyzar and Kalat. Abtalkh formation is one of the most important rock units in the late Cretaceous in the Kopet Dagh Basin. Abtalkh formation is 489 m and its stratigraphic units are 80 meters of dark grayshale, 20 km dark grayshale with calcareous layers with Inoseramus, 50 m gray marl tend to bluish with Siliceous limestone interlayers, 19 meters of gray-blueshale, 320 meters of light gray shale withthinlayer limestone interlayers. To take pictures of the samples, 100× objective lens and digital camera were used. In the course of this study, the lower part of Abtalkh formation was in Itamir cutting of the study and 9 genera were identified. Recognized calcareous Nannofossil had diversity and abundance. In general, in the greater thickness of the study, samples have moderate preservation. In some cases, the impact of dissolution phenomenon was so great that the main part of the species were corroded. Paying attention to the range of the rise and fall of index species and fossil assemblages, 4 biozones were identified for cutting according to the zones (CC18-CC21) of Sysyngzoning, 1977.
Cite this paper: Oyli, J. (2016) Investigating the Stratigraphy and the Gender of Nano-Fossils in the Lower Part of the Abtalkh Formation in Kopet Dagh Zone. Open Journal of Geology, 6, 1499-1512. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2016.612106.
References

[1]   Agha Nabati, A. (2004) Iran’s Geology, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, 586 p.

[2]   Khosrow Tehrani, Kh. (1988) General Information about Iran Stratigraphy and Sections Brigades. Tehran University Press.

[3]   Darvishzadeh, A. (1991) Geology of Iran. Dissemination of Knowledge Today (Amir Kabir Publishing Institute).

[4]   Sanaati, A. (1998) Ab Deraz Formation Biostratigraphy Based on Calcareous Nannoplankton. The Senior Thesis, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.

[5]   Moteie, H. (2003) Iran’s Geology (Geology of the Zagros). Geological Survey of Iran, 84.

[6]   Hadavi, F. (2001) Nannofossils Abtalkh Fomation in the West Village of Chehchehe. The Twentieth Meeting of Earth Sciences.

[7]   Hadavi, F., Pooresmaeel, A. and Notghi Moghadam, M. (2008) Calcareous Nannoplankton. Mashhad Ferdowsi University Press.

[8]   Arkhangelsky, A.D. (1912) Upper Cretaceous Deposite of East European Russia. Materialian zur Geologie Russlands, 25, 1-631.

[9]   Berberian, M. and King, G.C.P. (1981) Towards a Paleogeographic and Tectonic Evolution of Iran. Canada Journal of Earth Science, 18, 210-265.
https://doi.org/10.1139/e81-019

[10]   Bown, P.R. (1993) New Holococcoliths from the Toarcian-Aalenian (Jurassic) of Northern Germany. Senckenbergiana Lethaea, 73, 407-419.

[11]   Braarud, T. and Nordli, E. (1952) Coccoliths of Coccolithus huxleyi Seen in an Electron Microscope. Nature, 170, 361-362.
https://doi.org/10.1038/170361a0

[12]   Bralower, T.J. (1987) Valanginian to Aptian Calcareous Nannofossils Stratigraphy and Correlation with the Upper M-Sequens Manetic Anomalies. Marine Micropaleontology, 11, 293-310.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8398(87)90003-X

[13]   Bramlette, M.N. and Riedel, W.R. (1954) Stratigraphic Value of Discoasters and Some Other Microfossils Related to Recent Coccolithophore. Journal of Paleontology, 28, 385-403.

[14]   Bronnimann, P. (1965) Microfossils Incertae Sedis from the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of Cuba. Micropaleontology, 1, 28-51.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1484409

[15]   Bukry, D. (1969) Upper Cretaceous Coccoliths from Texas and Europe. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 51 (Protista 2), 1-79.

[16]   Bukry, D. and Bramlette, M.N. (1970) Coccolith Age Determination Leg 3, Deep Sea Drilling Project. DSDP Initial Reports—Deep Sea Drilling Project Reports, 3, 589-611.
https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.3.118.1970

[17]   Bukry, D. (1973) Coccolith Stratigraphy Eastern Equatorial Pacific. 611-653.

[18]   Burnett, J.A. (1998) Upper Cretaceous. In: Bown, P.R., Ed., Calcareous Nannofossils Biostratigraphy, Chapman & Hall, London, 132-199.

[19]   Cepek, P. and Hay, W.W. (1970) Zonation of the Upper Cretaceous Using Calcareous Nannoplankton. Palaobotanik, 3, 333-400.

[20]   Crux, J.A. and Heck, S.E. (1987) Nannofossils and Their Applications. Proceedings of the International Nannofossil Association Conference, London, 356.

[21]   Dercourt, J., et al. (1986) Geological Evolution of the Tethys Belt from the Atlantic to the Pamirs since the Lias. Tectonophysics, 123, 241-315.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(86)90199-X

[22]   Ehrenberg, C.G. (1836) Bemerkungen uber feste mikroscopische anorganische Formen in den erdigen und derben mineralien. Bericht. Verh. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss, Berlin, 84-85.

[23]   Erba, E. (2004) Calcareous Nannofossils and Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events. Marine Micropaleontology, 52, 85-106.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2004.04.007

[24]   Hadavi, F. and Khodadadi, L. (2002) Calcareous Nannoplankton of the Campanian-Maastrichtian of NE Iran. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, 24, 109.

[25]   Hadavi, F. (2004) Calcareous Nannofossils from the Abtalkh Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian), Kopet-Dogh Range, NE Iran. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, 26, 63-68.

[26]   Haq, B. (Ed.) (1983) Nannofossil Biostratigraphy, Benchmark Papers in Geology. Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsberg, 79.

[27]   Van Heck, S. (1979) Nannoplankton Contents of the Type-Maastrichtian. INA Newsletter, 1, N5-N6.

[28]   Huber, B.T., Hodell, D.A. and Hamilton, C.P. (1995) Middle-Late Cretaceous Climate of the Southern High Latitudes: Stable Isotopic Evidence for Minimal Equator-Pole Thermal Gradients. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 107, 1164-1191.
https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1995)107<1164:MLCCOT>2.3.CO;2

[29]   Huxley, T. H. (1868) On Some Organism Living at Great Depths in the North Atlantic Ocean. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 8, 203-212.

[30]   Inouye, I. and Kawachi, M. (1994) The Haptonema. In: Green, J.C. and Leadbeater, B.S.C., Eds., The Haptophyte Algae, The Systematics Association Special Volume No. 51, Clrendon Press, Oxford, 73-89.

[31]   Jafar, A.S. (1983) Significance of Late Triassic Calcareous Nannoplankton from Austria and Southern Germany. Neues jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie-Abhandlungen, 166, 218-259.

 
 
Top