JEAS  Vol.6 No.4 , December 2016
Utilization of Calcined Eggshell Waste as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution
Abstract: Calcined eggshells (CES) were tested as adsorbent at a low cost for the removal of phenol from the waste water. The shells of Eggs extracts from waste were washed and then dried at a temperature of 60 and finally calcined in an oven at the atmospheric air in several temperatures 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000. The chemical composition of the obtained adsorbs was analyzed by the X-ray diffraction. The isothermal study of adsorption of the phenol was realized for the various adsorbates. It showed that the biggest efficiency of the elimination was attributed to the calcined eggshells to 1000with a percentage that reached 37%. The kinetics of adsorption were described by the first rate model. The intra particular distribution is a significant step in the adsorption process of phenol on calcined eggshells (CES). The separation factor gives a favorable adsorption of phenol on the CES.
Cite this paper: Chraibi, S. , Moussout, H. , Boukhlifi, F. , Ahlafi, H. and Alami, M. (2016) Utilization of Calcined Eggshell Waste as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 6, 132-146. doi: 10.4236/jeas.2016.64010.

[1]   Calace, N., Nardi, E., Petronio, B. and Pietroletti, M. (2002) Adsorption of Phenols by Papermill Sludges. Environmental Pollution, 118, 315-319.

[2]   Caqueret, V., Bostyn, S., Cagnon, B. and Fauduet, H. (2008) Purification of Sugar Beet Vinasse-Adsorption of Polyphenolic and Dark Colored Compounds on Different Commercial Activated Carbons. Bioresource Technology, 99, 5814-5821.

[3]   Richards, S. and Bouazza, A. (2007) Phenol Adsorption in Organo-Modified Basaltic Clay and Bentonite. Applied Clay Science, 37, 133-142.

[4]   Alkaram, U.F., Mukhlis, A.A. and Al-Dujaili, A.H. (2009) The Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Using Surfactant-Modified Bentonite and Kaolinite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169, 324-332.

[5]   Daffalla, S.B., Mukhtar, H. and Shaharun, M.S. (2012) Effect of Organic and Inorganic Acid Pretreatment on Structural Properties of Rice Husk and Adsorption Mechanism of Phenol. International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 3, 192-200.

[6]   Dursun, G., Ciçek, H. and Dursun, A.Y. (2005) Adsorption of Phenol from Aqueous Solution by Using Carbonised Beet Pulp. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 125, 175-182.

[7]   Tseng, R.-L., Wu, K.-T., Wu, F.-C. and Juang, R.-S. (2000) Kinetic Studies on the Adsorption of Phenol, 4-Chlorophenol, and 2,4-Dichlorophenol from Water Using Activated Carbons. Journal of Environmental Management, 91, 2208-2214.

[8]   TRIFI, I.M. (2013) Thèse de Doctorat en cotutelle Docteur en Chimie Etude de l’élimination du chrome (VI) par adsorption sur l’alumine activée et par dialyse ionique croisée. Créteil, Université Paris-est.

[9]   Pramanpol, N. and Nitayapat, N. (2006) Adsorption of Reactive Dye by Eggshell and Its Membrane. Kasetsart Journal: Natural Science, 40, 192-197.

[10]   Chowdhury, S., Chakraborty, S. and Das Saha, P. (2012) Removal of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Eggshells: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Artificial Neural Network Modeling. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 4, 655-664.

[11]   Tsai, W.-T., Hsien, K.-J., Hsu, H.-C., Lin, C.-M., Lin, K.-Y. and Chiu, C.-H. (2008) Utilization of Ground Eggshell Waste as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Dyes from Aqueous Solution. Bioresource Technology, 99, 1623-1629.

[12]   Arami, M., Yousefi Limaee, N. and Mahmoodi, N.M. (2006) Investigation on the Adsorption Capability of Egg Shell Membrane towards Model Textile Dyes. Chemosphere, 65, 1999-2008.

[13]   Ahmad, R., Kumar, R. and Haseeb, S. (2012) Adsorption of Cu2+ from Aqueous Solution onto Iron Oxide Coated Eggshell Powder: Evaluation of Equilibrium, Isotherms, Kinetics, and Regeneration Capacity. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 5, 353-359.

[14]   Yeddou, N. and Bensmaili, A. (2007) Equilibrium and Kinetic Modelling of Iron Adsorption by Eggshells in a Batch System: Effect of Temperature. Desalination, 206, 127-134.

[15]   Köse, T.E. and Kivanç, B. (2011) Adsorption of Phosphate from Aqueous Solutions Using Calcined Waste Eggshell. Chemical Engineering Journal, 178, 34-39.

[16]   Boukhlifi, F., Chraibi, S. and Alami, M. (2013) Evaluation of the the Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibrium for the Potential Removal of Phenol Using a New Biosorbent. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 3, 181-190.

[17]   Xie, M., Chen, W., Xu, Z., Zheng, S. and Zhu, D. (2014) Adsorption of Sulfonamides to Demineralized Pine Wood Biochars Prepared under Different Thermochemical Conditions. Environmental Pollution, 186, 187-194.

[18]   Yang, K., Yang, J., Jiang, Y., Wu, W. and Lin, D. (2016) Correlations and Adsorption Mechanisms of Aromatic Compounds on a High Heat Temperature Treated Bamboo Biochar. Environmental Pollution, 210, 57-64.

[19]   Park, H.J., Jeong, S.W., Yang, J.K., Kim, B.G. and Lee, S.M. (2007) Removal of Heavy Metals Using Waste Eggshell. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19, 1436-1441.

[20]   Witoon, T. (2011) Characterization of Calcium Oxide Derived from Waste Eggshell and Its Application as CO2 Sorbent. Ceramics International, 37, 3291-3298.

[21]   Hernández-Montoya, V., Ramírez-Montoya, L.A., Bonilla-Petriciolet, A. and Montes-Morán, M.A. (2012) Optimizing the Removal of Fluoride from Water Using New Carbons Obtained by Modification of Nut Shell with a Calcium Solution from Egg Shell. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 62, 1-7.

[22]   Liu, F., Zhao, J., Wang, S. and Xing, B. (2016) Adsorption of Sulfonamides on Reduced Graphene Oxides as Affected by pH and Dissolved Organic Matter. Environmental Pollution, 210, 85-93.

[23]   Belaid, K.D. and Kacha, S. (2011) Étude Cinétique Et Thermodynamique De L’Adsorption D’Un Colorant Basique Sur La Sciure De Bois. Revue des Sciences de l’Eau, 24, 131-144.

[24]   Arami, M., Limaee, N. and Mahmoodi, N. (2008) Evaluation of the Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibrium for the Potential Removal of Acid Dyes Using a Biosorbent. Chemical Engineering Journal, 139, 2-10.

[25]   Giles, H.A. and Smith, C.H. (1974) A general Treatment and Classification of the Solute Adsorption Isotherm. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 47, 755-765.

[26]   Giles, C.H., MacEwan, T.H., Nakhwa, S.N. and Smith, D. (1960) A System of Classification of Solution Adorption Isotherms and Its Use in Diagnosis of Adsorption Mechanisms and in Measurement of Specific Surface Areas of Solids. Journal of the Chemical Society, 3, 3973-3993.

[27]   Dubus, L. (1997) La rétention du phosphore dans les sols: Principes d’étude, modélisation, mécanismes et compartiments du sol impliquésle. Doc. Sci. Tech. III3, no. édition Centre ORSTOM de Nouméa.

[28]   Salim, B. (2012) Etude de la dégradation photocatalytique et de l’adsorption du Phénol sur TiO2 P25. Influence de la présence des métaux lourds et des ultrasons. Université Mentouri Constantine Faculté des Sciences de l’Ingénieur.