FNS  Vol.2 No.7 , September 2011
Occurrence of Fungi and Mycotoxins in Some Commercial Baby Foods in North Africa
ABSTRACT
Aflatoxins, are one of over 200 known mycotoxins produced by filamentous fungi. They are toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic and may be present in many raw and processed food commodities including cereals and milk used as ingredients in infant food products. Consumption of these commodities may pose a potential risk to the health of infants. The mycoflora of 84 samples of baby food commercially available in North Africa was determined. The feeds were screened for mycotoxins using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and further analyses were carried for the total aflatoxins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Kobra cell to derivatise the aflatoxins (B1, G1, B2 and G2). Twenty-four fungal isolates were recovered from the samples consisting of 5 Aspergillus. spp, 13 Penicillum. spp, 5 Mucor. spp and an unidentified species Of these, 45.8% of the isolates were found to be mycotoxigenic however only 2.4% of the samples contained aflatoxins (19 to 70 µg·kg–1) and the remaining contained undetectable levels of the toxin. Storage at elevated relative humidity for 7 days showed a slight increase in the fungal counts but the toxin levels were unaffected. The results show the importance of periodic testing regime of ingredients used infant food formula for the presence of fungal contamination.

Cite this paper
nullK. Aidoo, S. Mohamed, A. Candlish, R. Tester and A. Elgerbi, "Occurrence of Fungi and Mycotoxins in Some Commercial Baby Foods in North Africa," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 7, 2011, pp. 751-758. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.27103.
References
[1]   World Health Organization (WHO), “Mycotoxins in African Foods: Implications to Food Safety and Health,” AFRO Food Safety Newsletter, World Health Organisation Food Safety (FOS), July 2006.

[2]   P. Sean and P. D. Abbott, “Mycotoxins and Indoor Moulds,” Indoor Environment Connections, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2002, pp. 14-24.

[3]   J. M. Wagacha and J. W Muthomi, “Mycotoxin Problem in Africa: Current Status, Implications to Food Safety and Health and Possible Management Strategies,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 124, No. 1, 2008, pp. 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.01.008

[4]   International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), “Some Naturally Occurring Substances: Food Items and Constituents, Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Mycotoxins,” IARC Monograph on Evaluation of Carcinogens and Risks in Humans, Vol. 56, 1993, pp. 1-599.

[5]   S. Dow, “The Politics of Breast Cancer,” The Australia, Vol. 35, 1994, pp. 6-17.

[6]   H. Nagy, A. Loutfy and A. Moussa, “Influence of Gamma-Radiation on Mycotoxin Producing Moulds and Mycotoxins in Fruits,” Food Control, Vol. 13, No. 4-5, 2001, pp. 281-288.

[7]   R. Shipra, D. D. Premendra, K. K. Subhash and D. Mukul, “Detection of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Infant Milk Products from Indian Markets by ELISA,” Food Control, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2004, pp. 287-290. doi:10.1016/S0956-7135(03)00078-1

[8]   C. Tarik-Haluk, S. Belgin and K. Ozlem, “Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Pasteurized Milk,” Veterinary Arski Arhives, Vol. 75, No. 1, 2005, pp. 57-65.

[9]   O. Mohammad-Reza, J. Behrooz, S. Naficeh, H. Mannan and N. Azadeh, “Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Infant Milk Products in Tehran, Iran,” Food Control, Vol. 18, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1216-1218. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.07.021

[10]   H. Huseyin-Oruc, C. Recep, E. Engin and G. Ertan. “Fate of Aflatoxin M1 in Kashar Cheese,” Journal of Food Safety, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2007, pp. 82-90.

[11]   A. Pittet, “Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds,” Medical Veterinary, Vol. 149, 1998, pp. 479-499.

[12]   E. E. Creppy, “Update of Survey, Regulation and Toxic Effects of Mycotoxins in Europe,” Toxicology Letters, Vol. 127, 2002, pp. 667-743. doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00479-9

[13]   S. S. Deshpande, “Fungal Toxins. In: Handbook of Food Toxicology,” Marcel Decker, New York, 2002, pp. 387-456. doi:10.1201/9780203908969

[14]   D. L. Park, “Effect of Processing on Aflatoxin,” Advances in Experimental Medical Biology, Vol. 504, 2002 pp. 173-179. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0629-4_17

[15]   H. P. van Egmond, “Worldwide Regulations for Mycotoxins,” Advances in Experimental Medical Biology, Vol. 504, 2002, pp. 257-269. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0629-4_27

[16]   D. Barug, H. P. van Egmond, R. Lopez-Garcia, T. van Osenbruggen and A. Visconti, “Meeting the Mycotoxins Menace,” Wageningen Academic, The Netherlands, 2003.

[17]   A. Fellinger, “Worldwide Mycotoxin Regulations and Analytical Challenges,” World Grain Summit: Foods and Beverages, San Francisco, California, September 2006.

[18]   EC (Codex Alimentarius Commissions), “Discussion and Possible Opinion on Draft Commissions Regulation Amending Regulation (EC) NO. 466/2001 as Regards Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Foods for Infant and Young Children (SANCO/0983/2002 REV. 6),” 2004.

[19]   European Commission (EC), “The Commission Decision, 2006/504/EC,” Official Journal of the European Union L199, 2006, pp. 21-32.

[20]   R. Samson, E. Hoekstra, J. Frisvad and O. Filtenborg, “Introduction to Food Borne Fungi,” 6th Edition, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2002.

[21]   P. V. Hans and H. P. Walter, “Determination of Mycotoxins,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 58, No. 2, 1986, pp. 315-326. doi:10.1351/pac198658020315

[22]   A. A. G. Candlish, C. A. Haynes and W. H. Simson, “Detection and Determination of Aflatoxins Using Affinity Chromatography,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1988, pp. 479-485. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb00604.x

[23]   H. Bacha, R. Hadidane, E. Creppy, C. Regnault, F. Ellouze and G. Dirheimer, “Monitoring and Identification of Fungal Toxins in Food Products, Animal Feed and Cereals in Tunisia,” Journal of Stored Products Research, Vol. 24, 1988, pp. 199-206. doi:10.1016/0022-474X(88)90019-7

[24]   J. Marika, C. S. Maria, K. Merja, V. Pirojo, R. Aldo, R. Alberto and P. Kimmo, “Levels of Mycotoxins and Sample Cytotoxicity of Selected Organic and Conventional Grain-Based Products Purchased from Finnish and Italian Markets,” Molecular and Nutritional Food Research, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2004, pp. 299-307. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200400026

[25]   B. Terken, B. E. Ayse, G. G?zde, A. Sevtap and S. G?nul. “Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin in Various Types of Commonly Consumed Retail Ground Samples in Ankara, Turkey,” Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Me- dicine, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2005, pp. 193-197.

[26]   Health Canada Scientists, “Federal Study Finds Toxins in Baby Food,” 2003. http://www.breakingtheviciouscycle.info/news/baby_food_study.htm

[27]   FSIS 68/2004, “Food Survey Information Sheets Survey of Baby Foods for Mycotoxins,” 2004. http://www.food.gov.uk

[28]   E. K. Kim, D. H Shon, D. Ryu, J. W. Park, H. J. Hwand and Y. B. Kim, “Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Korean Dairy Products Determined by ELISA and HPLC,” Food Additives and Contaminants, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2000, pp. 59-64. doi:10.1080/026520300283595

[29]   C. Araguas, E. Gonza’lez-Penas and C. de Lopez, “Study on Ochratoxin A in Cereal Derived Products from Spain,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2005, pp. 459-464. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.08.012

[30]   E. Razzazi-Fazeli, C. Noviandi, A. Porasuphatana and J. Bohm, “A Survey of Aflatoxins B1 and Total Aflatoxins Contamination in Baby Food, Peanut and Products Sold at Retail in Indonesia Analyzed by ELISA and HPLC,” Mycotoxin Research, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2004, pp. 51-58. doi:10.1007/BF02946735

[31]   V. Sewram, G. S. Shephard, W. F. O. Marasas and M. F. Castro, “Improving Extraction of Fumonisin Mycotoxins from Brazilian Corn-Based Infant Foods,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 66, No. 5, 2003, pp. 854-859.

[32]   J. Tam, M. Mankotia, M. Mably, P. Pantazopoulos, R. J. Neil, P. Calway and P. Scott, “Survey of Breakfast and Infant Cereals for Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2,” Food Additives and Contaminants, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2006, pp. 693-699. doi:10.1080/02652030600627230

[33]   S. Marit-Aralt, “Analysis of Norwegian Milk and Infant Formulas for Ochratoxin A,” Food Additives and Contaminants, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1999, pp. 75-78. doi:10.1080/026520399284235

[34]   B. Beretta, R. de Domenico, A. Gaiaschi, C. Ballabio, C. L. Galli, C. Gigliotti and P. Restani, “Ochratoxin A in Cereal-Based Baby Foods: Occurrence and Safety Evaluation,” Food Additives and Contaminants, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2002, pp. 70-75. doi:10.1080/02652030110070021

[35]   H. Mykk?nen, H. Zhu, E. Salminen, R. O. Juvonen, W. Ling, J. Ma, N. Polychronaki, H. Kemil?inen, O. Mykk?nen, S. Salminen and H. El-Nezami, “Faecal and Urinary Excretion of Aflatoxin B1 Metabolites (AFQ1, AFM1 and AFB1-N7-Guanine) in Young Chinese Males,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 115, No. 6, 2005, pp. 879-884. doi:10.1002/ijc.20951

[36]   N. Polychronaki, R. M. West, P. C. Turner, H. Amra, M. Abdel-Wahhab, H. Mykk?nen and H. El-Nezami, “A Longitudinal Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 Excretion in Breast Milk of Selected Egyptian Mothers,” Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Vol. 45, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1210- 1215. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.01.001

[37]   Y. Y. Gong, S. Egal, S. Hounsa, A. J. Hall, K. F. Cardwell and C. P. Wild, “Determinants of Aflatoxin Exposure in Young Children from Benin and Togo, West Africa: The Critical Role of Weaning,” International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2003, pp. 556-662. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg109

[38]   N. Polychronakiab, P. C. Turner, H. Mykk?nen, Y. Gong, H. Amra, M. Abdel-Wahhab and H. El-Nezami, “Determinants of Aflatoxin M1 in Breast Milk in a Selected Group of Egyptian Mothers,” Food Additives and Contaminants, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2006, pp. 700-708. doi:10.1080/02652030600627222

[39]   Y. M. Abdulrazzaq, N. Osman, Z. M. Yousif and S. Al-Falahi, “Aflatoxin M1 in Breast-Milk of United Arab Emirates Women,” Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2003, pp. 173-179. doi:10.1179/027249303322296484

[40]   J. B. Coulter, S. M. Lamplugh, G. I. Suliman, M. I. Omer and R. G. Hendrickse, “Aflatoxins in Human Breast Milk,” Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, Vol. 4, 1984, pp. 61-66.

[41]   A. Zarba, C. P. Wild, A. J. Hall, R. Montesano, G. J. Hudson and J. D. Groopman, “Aflatoxin M1 in Human Breast Milk from the Gambia, West Africa, Quantified by Combined Monoclonal Antibody Immunoaffinity Chromatography and HPLC,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 13, No. 5, 1992, pp. 891-894. doi:10.1093/carcin/13.5.891

[42]   A. M. Elgerbi, “Studies on Occurrence of Aflatoxins M1 in Milk Products and Effect of Lactobacilli and Related Genera on Toxin,” Ph.D. Thesis, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, 2005.

 
 
Top