Back
 ENG  Vol.8 No.11 , November 2016
Influence of Groundwater Hypothetical Salts on Electrical Conductivity Total Dissolved Solids
Abstract: A relationship between electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) was tested for solutions of same salinity levels with respect to different artificial salts with their combinations. Results showed remarkable jumping at the order of the artificial salt sequence specially that of the magnesium type. A computer model is designed with an input of EC and TDS. The output will be the possible prevailing artificial salts. The accuracy of the model was tested by using the groundwater data of Safwan-Zubair area south of Iraq and it proved to be significant at 95% matching. The 5% unmatched results are due to the possibility of having more than one type of prevailing salt.
Cite this paper: Dahaan, S. , Al-Ansari, N. and Knutsson, S. (2016) Influence of Groundwater Hypothetical Salts on Electrical Conductivity Total Dissolved Solids. Engineering, 8, 823-830. doi: 10.4236/eng.2016.811074.
References

[1]   Siosemarde, M., Kafa, F., Pazira, E., Sedghi, H. and Ghaderi, S.J. (2010) Determine of Constant Coefficients to Relate Total Dissolved Solids to Electrical Conductivity. International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological and Geophysical Engineering, 4, 457-459.

[2]   Hölting, B. and Coldewey, W.G. (2012) Hydrogeologie-Einführung in die Allgemeine und Angewandte. Springer Spektrum, Berlin, 439 p.

[3]   Yilmaz, E. and Koc, C. (2014) Physically and Chemically Evaluation for the Water Quality Criteria in a Farm on Akcay. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 63-67. https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2014.62010

[4]   Hubert, E. and Wolkersdorfer, C. (2015) Establishing a Conversion Factor between Electrical Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids in South Africa Mine Waters. Water SA, 41, 490-500. https://doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v41i4.08

[5]   Todd, D.K. (1990) Groundwater Hydrology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 535 p.

[6]   Todd, D.K. (2007) Groundwater Hydrology. 2nd Edition, 3rd Reprint, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., India.

[7]   State Water Resources Control Board (2016) Groundwater Information Sheet. Salinity, Division of Water Quality, GAMA Program, USA.
http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/gama/docs/coc_salinity.pdf

[8]   United States Geological Survey (2016) Sources of Dissolved Solids in Brackish Groundwater.
http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/brackishgw/sources.html

[9]   Boyd, C.E. (2000) Water Quality an Introduction. Kluwer Academic Publisher, USA, 330 p.

[10]   Hem, J.D. (1985) Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water. 3rd Edition, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper, Vol. 2254. Washington DC.

[11]   Hem, J.D. (1991) Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1973, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 363 p.

[12]   Boyd, C.E. (1999) Water Quality: An Introduction. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, The Netherlands.

[13]   Detay, M. (1997) Water Wells—Implementation, Maintenance and Restoration. John Wiley and Sons, London, 379 p.

[14]   Werkema, D.D. (2002) Geoelectrical Response of an Aged LNAPL. Plume: Implications for Monitoring Natural Attenuation. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Western Michigan University, 136 p.

[15]   Ledesma-Ruiz, R., Pastén-Zapata, E., Parra, R., Harter, T. and Mahlknecht, J. (2015) Investigation of the Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater under Agricultural Land: A Case Study in Northeastern Mexico. Journal of Hydrology, 521, 410-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.12.026

[16]   Al-Shidi, F.K.R. (2014) Study the Quality of Groundwater of Al-Zoroup Area in Mhdah State, the Sultanate of Oman. MSc Thesis, United Arab Emirates University, College of Science, 160 p.
http://scholarworks.uaeu.ac.ae/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=all_theses

[17]   Atekwanaa, E.A., Atekwanaa, E.A., Roweb, R.S., Werkema Jr., D.D. and Legalld, F.D. (2004) The Relationship of Total Dissolved Solids Measurements to Bulk Electrical Conductivity in an Aquifer Contaminated with Hydrocarbon. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 56, 281-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-9851(04)00057-6

[18]   Advanced Purification Engineering Corp. (2016) Water Quality, Total Dissolved Solids in Water.
http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-education2/72-tds-water.htm

[19]   Safe Drinking Water Foundation (2016) TDS AND pH.
http://www.safewater.org/PDFS/resourcesknowthefacts/TDS_AND%20_pH.pdf

[20]   Mackereth, F.J.H., Heron, J. and Talling, J.F. (1978) Water Analysis, Scientific Publication No. 36. Fresh Water Biological Association, 120 p.

[21]   Dezuane, J. (1997) Handbook of Drinking Water Quality. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons.

[22]   Drever, J.I. (1997) The Geochemistry of Natural Water, Surface and Groundwater Environments. 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, USA, 436 p.

[23]   Wood, W.W. (1976) Guidelines for Collection and Field Analyses of Groundwater Samples for Selected Unstable Constituents. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States.

[24]   Meddis, R. (1975) Statistical Handbook for Non-Statisticians. McGraw-Hill Book Company, UK, 161 p.

 
 
Top