FNS  Vol.2 No.7 , September 2011
Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as Affected by Soaking and Cooking Conditions
Abstract: Chickpea lines with colored testa (seed coat) contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds that exhibit high levels of antioxidant activity. However, common processing procedures, such as soaking and cooking, may decrease the levels of these bioactive compounds and subsequent overall antioxidant activity. Here, the effects of soaking, cooking and steaming processes were examined in relation to total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and ferric reducing ability of plasma antioxidant activity (FRAP AA) of colored chickpea seeds. All processing steps significantly reduced TPC, TFC and FRAP AA in all of the tested chickpea seeds. Nevertheless, soaking the seeds at room temperature (for 22 h) resulted in a smaller decrease in TPC, TFC and FRAP AA than soaking at 60℃ (for 2 h). Moreover, steaming was superior to cooking in terms of conserving polyphenol and antioxidant activity. The observed reduction in TPC was mainly due to leaching of these compounds from the seed coat into the soaking or cooking water. Based on these results, we suggest that soaking at room temperature for 22 h followed by steaming for 1 h is the best method for retaining TPC, TFC and FRAP AA of colored chickpea.
Cite this paper: nullA. Segev, H. Badani, L. Galili, R. Hovav, Y. Kapulnik, I. Shomer and S. Galili, "Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as Affected by Soaking and Cooking Conditions," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 7, 2011, pp. 724-730. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.27099.

[1]   U. Singh, N. Subrahmanyam and J. Kumar, “Cooking Quality and Nutritional Attributes of Some Newly Developed Cultivars of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum),” Journal Science Food and Agriculture, Vol. 55, 1991, pp. 37-46. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740550106

[2]   B. Nizakat, B. K. Amal, S. S. K Gul, M. Zahid and I. Ihsanullah, “Quality and Consumer Acceptability Studies and Their Inter-Relationship of Newly Evolved Desi Type Chickpea Genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.). Quality Evolution of New Chickpea Genotypes,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 42, 2007, pp. 528-534. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01246.x

[3]   X. Han, T. Shen and H. Lou, “Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance,” International Journal Molecular Science, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2007 pp. 950-988. doi:10.3390/i8090950

[4]   P. B. Geil, and J. W. Anderson, “Nutrition and Health Implications of Dry Beans: A Review,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 13, No. 6, 1994, pp. 549- 558.

[5]   A. Scalbert, C. Manach and C. Morand, “Dietary Polyphenols and the Prevention of Diseases,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2005, pp. 287- 306. doi:10.1080/1040869059096

[6]   D. Heimler, P. Vignolini, M. G. Dini and A. Romani, “Rapid Tests to Assess the Antioxidant Activity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Dry Beans,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, 2005 pp. 3053-3056. doi:10.1021/jf049001r

[7]   L. Azevedo, J. C. Gomes, P. C. Stringheta, A. M. M. C. Gontijo, C. R. Padovani, L. R. Ribeiro and D. M. F. Salvadori, “Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as Protective Agent against DNA Damage in Mice,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 41, No. 12, 2003, pp. 1671-1676. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00173-X

[8]   A. Cardador-Martínez, A. Albores, M. Bah, V. Calderón-Salinas, E. Casta?o-Tostado, R. Guevara-González, A. Shimada-Miyasaka and G. Loarca-Pi?a, “Relationship among Antimutagenic Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activities of Methanolic Extract from Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.),” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 61, No. 4, 2006, pp. 161-168. doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0026-4

[9]   A. Cardador-Martinez, G. Loacra-Pina and B. D. Oomah, “Antioxidant Activity in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.),”Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 24, 2002, pp. 6975-6980. doi:10.1021/jf020296n

[10]   E. G. de Mejía, E. Casta?o-Tostado and G. Loarca-Pi?a, “Antimutagenic Effects of Natural Phenolic Compounds in Beans,” Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Vol. 441, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1016/S1383-5718(99)00040-6

[11]   X. Aparicio-Fernández, R. Reynoso-Camacho, E. Casta?o-Tostado, T. García-Gasca, E. González de Mejía, S. Guzmán-Maldonado, G. Elizondo, G. G. Yousef, M. A. Lila and G. Loarca-Pi?a, “Antiradical Capacity and Induction of Apoptosis in HeLa Cells by a Phaseolus vulgaris Extract,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 63, 2008, pp. 35-40. doi:10.1007/s11130-007-0066-4

[12]   X. Aparicio-Fernandez, T. Garc?a-Gasca, G. G. Yousef, M. A. Lila, E. Gonzalez de Mejia and G. Loarca-Pina. “Chemopreventive Activity of Polyphenolics from Black Jamapa Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on HeLa HaCaT Cells,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, 2006, pp. 2116-2122. doi:10.1021/jf052974m

[13]   M. Dong, X. He and R. H. Liu, “Phytochemicals of Black Bean Seed Coats: Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Their Antiproliferative and Antioxidative Activities,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 15, pp. 2007, pp. 6044-6051.

[14]   R. Amarowicz and B. Raab, “Antioxidative Activity of Leguminous Seed Extracts Evaluated by Chemiluminescence Methods,” Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, Vol. 52, 1997, pp. 709-712.

[15]   M. Carbonaro, F. Virgili and E. Carnovale, “Evidence for Protein-Tannin Interaction in Legumes, Implications in the Antioxidant Properties of Faba Bean Tannins,” Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, Vol. 29, 1996, pp. 743-750.

[16]   F. Shahidi, U. D. Chavan, M. Naczk and R. Amarowicz, “Nutrient Distribution and Phenolic Antioxidants in Air-Classified Fractions of Beach Pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, 2001, pp. 926-933. doi:10.1021/jf0005317

[17]   P. D. Duh, W. J. Yen, P. C. Du and G. C. Yen, “Antioxidant Activity of Mung Bean Hulls,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, Vol. 74, No. 9, 1997, pp. 1059- 1063. doi:10.1007/s11746-997-0025-0

[18]   R. Amarowicz, M. Karamac and U. Chavan, “Influence of the Extraction Procedure on the Antioxidative Activity of Lentil Seed Extracts in a b-Carotene-Linoleate Model System,” Grasasy Aceites, Vol. 52, 2001, pp. 89-93. doi:10.3989/gya.2001.v52.i2.378

[19]   H. Han and B.-K. Baik, “Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Lentils (Lens culinaris), Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.), Peas (Pisum sativum L.) and Soybeans (Glycine max) and Their Quantitative Changes during Processing,” International Journal Food Science Technology, Vol. 43, 2008, pp. 1971-1978. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01800.x

[20]   B. J. Xu and S. K. C. Chang, “A Comparative Study on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Legumes as Affected by Extraction Solvents,” Journal Food Science, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2007, pp. S159-S166. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00260.x

[21]   B. Xu and S. K. C. Chang, “Effect of Soaking, Boiling and Steaming on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Cool Season Food Legumes,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 110, 2008, pp. 1-13.

[22]   A. Segev, H. Badani, Y. Kapulnik, I. Shomer, M. Oren-Shamir and S. Galili, “Determination of Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity in Colored Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.),” Journal Food Science, Vol. 75, 2010, pp. S115-S119. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01477.x

[23]   B. J. Xu, S. H. Yuan and S. K. C. Chang, “Comparative Analyses of Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and Color of Cool Season Legumes and Other Selected Food Legumes,” Journal Food Science, Vol. 72, 2007, pp. S167-S177. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00261.x

[24]   C. F. Chau, P.C. Cheung, Y. S. Wong “Effect of Cooking on Content of Amino Acids and Antinutrients in Three Chinese Indigenous Legume Seeds,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 75, 1997, pp. 447-452. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199712)75:4<447::AID-JSFA896>3.0.CO;2-5

[25]   V. L. Singleton, R. Orthofer and R. M. Lamuela-Raven-Tos, “Analysis of Total Phenols and Other Oxidation Substrates and Antioxidants by Means of Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent,” Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 299, 1999, pp. 152-178. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1

[26]   V. L. Singleton and J. A. Rossi, “Colorimetry of Total Phenolic with Phosphomolybdicphosphotungstic Acid Reagents,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1965, pp. 144-158.

[27]   I. F. F. Benzie and J. J. Strain, “The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of ‘Atioxidant Power’: The FRAP Assay,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 239, 1996, pp. 70-76. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0292

[28]   Y. Coskuner and E. Karababa, “Effect of Location and Soaking Treatments on the Cooking Quality of Some Chickpea Breeding Lines,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 38, 2003, pp. 751-757. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.2003.00727.x

[29]   B. Xu and S. C. Chang, “Total Phenolics, Phenolic Acids, Isoflavones and Anthocyanins and Antioxidant Properties of Yellow and Black Soybeans as Affected by Thermal Processing,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 56, 2008b, pp. 7165-7175. doi:10.1021/jf8012234

[30]   N. Pellegrini, M. Serafini, S. Salvatore, D. del Rio, M. Bianchi and F. Brighenti, “Total Antioxidant Capacity of Spices, Dried Fruits, Nuts, Pulses, Cereals and Sweets Consumed in Italy Assessed by Three Different in Vitro Assays,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, Vol. 50, 2006, pp. 1030-1038. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200600067

[31]   S. B. Jood, M. Chauhan and A. C. Kapoor, “Polyphenols of Chickpea and Black Gram as Affected by Domestic Processing and Cooking Methods,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 39, 1987, pp. 145-149. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740390207

[32]   A. Bressani and L. G. Elias, “The Nutritional Role of Polyphenols in Beans,” In: J. H. Hulse Ed., Polyphenols in Cereal and Legumes, International Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada, 1980, pp 61-68.

[33]   C. F. Barroga, A. C. Laurena and E. M. T. Mendoza, “Polyphenols in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). Determination and Removal,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 33, 1985, pp. 1006-1009. doi:10.1021/jf00065a056

[34]   N. E. Rocha-Guzman, R. F. Gonzalez-Laredo, F. J. Ibarra-Perez, C. A. Nava-Berumen and J.-A. Gallegos-Infante, “Effect of Pressure Cooking on the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Three Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 100, 2007, pp. 31-35. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.005