IJCNS  Vol.4 No.9 , September 2011
A LEACH-Head Expected Frequency Appraisal Algorithm for Water-Environment Monitoring Networks
Abstract: Water-environment monitoring network (WMN) is a wireless sensor network based real-time system, which collects, transmits, analyzes and processes water-environment parameters in large area. Both cluster selection mechanisms and energy saving strategies play an important role on designing network routing protocols for the WMN. Since those existing routing algorithms can not be used directly in the WMN, we thus propose an improved version of LEACH, a LEACH-Head Expected Frequency Appraisal (LEACH-HEFA) algorithm, for the WMN in this paper. Simulation results show that the LEACH-HEFA can balance the energy consumption of nodes, rationalize the clustering process and prolong the network lifetime significantly in the WMN. It indicates that the LEACH-HEFA is suitable to the WMN.
Cite this paper: nullC. Li, G. Tan, J. Wu, Z. Zhang and L. Xu, "A LEACH-Head Expected Frequency Appraisal Algorithm for Water-Environment Monitoring Networks," International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2011, pp. 562-567. doi: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.49067.

[1]   L. Fl, “Wireless Sensor Networks,” Smart Environments: Technologies, Protocols, and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2004, pp. 1-18.

[2]   P. Corke and T. Wark, “Environmental Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 98, No. 11, 2010, pp. 1903-1917. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2010.2068530

[3]   X. J. Yan, L. M. Lu and L. Z. Xu, “The Application of Wireless Sensor Network in the Irrigation Area Automatic System,” International Conference on Networks Security, Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing, Vol. 2, 25-26 April 2009, pp. 21-24.

[4]   T. H. Fan, L. Z. Xu, X. W. Zhang and H. B. Wang, “Research and Design of a Node of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network,” Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, Piscataway, 24-26 September 2009.

[5]   S. Guo, H. Zhang and H. Chen, “A Reservoir Flood Forecasting and Control System for China,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 49, No. 6, 2006, pp. 959-972.

[6]   X. F. Li, L. Z. Xu and H. B. Wang, “A Differential Evolution-Based Routing Algorithm for Environmental Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks,” Sensors, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2010, pp. 5425-5442.

[7]   H. B. Wang, Y. L. Zhong, J. H. Zhang, X. J. Yan, L. Z. Xu, “Based on Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks Clustering Protocol,” Microelectronics & Computer, Vol. 27, No. 8, 2010, pp. 226-229.

[8]   O. Younis and S. Fahmy, “HEED: A Hybrid, Energy Efficient, Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks”, IEEE Trans on Mobile Computing, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2004, pp. 660-669. doi:10.1109/TMC.2004.41

[9]   A. B. M. A. Al Islam, C. S. Hyder, H. Kabir and M. Naznin, “Finding the Optimal Percentage of Cluster Heads from a New and Complete Mathematical Model on LEACH,” Wireless Sensor Network, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010, pp. 129-140.

[10]   J. Zhu, J. Li and H. Gao, “Tasks Allocation for Real- Time Applications in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks for Energy Minimization,” 8th ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2007), Qingdao, 30 July-1 August 2007, pp. 20-25.

[11]   G. Anastasi, M. Conti, M. Di Francesco and A. Passarella, “Energy Conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” A survey, Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 7 No. 3, 2009, pp. 537- 568. doi:10.1016/j.adhoc.2008.06.003

[12]   P. Tillapart, T. Thumthawatworn and P. Pakdeepinit, “Method for Cluster Heads Select Ion in Wireless Sensor Network,” Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Aerospace Conference, IEEE, Piscataway, 6-13 March 2004, pp. 3615-3623.

[13]   B. Nazir and H.Hasbullah, “Energy Balanced Clustering in Wireless Sensor Network,” 4th International Symposium on Information Technology 2010 (ITSim’10), Kuala Lumpur, 15-17 June 2010.

[14]   N. M. A. Latiff, C. Tsimenidis and B. S. Sharif, “Performance Comparison of Optimization Algorithms for Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks,” MASS, Pisa, 8-11 October 2007, pp. 1-4.

[15]   A. Manjeshwar, D. P. Grawal, “TEEN: A Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 15th Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IEEE Computer Society, San Francisco, 23-27 April 2001.

[16]   Y. Tao and Y. L. Zheng, “The Combination of the Optimal Number of Cluster-Heads and Energy Adaptive Cluster-Head Selection Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks,” WiCOM, International Conference, Wuhan, 23-25 September 2011, pp. 1-4.

[17]   E. W. Heinz, “Application Specific Protocol Architectures for Wireless Networks,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 2000.

[18]   T. Issariyakul and E. Hossain, “Introduction to Network Simulator NS2,” Springer, Berlin, 2008.