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 JEP  Vol.7 No.12 , November 2016
Optimizing Hydraulic and Chemical Properties of Iron and Aluminum Byproducts for Use in On-Farm Containment Structures for Phosphorus Removal
Abstract:
Phosphorus (P) transported in runoff from broiler production areas is a potential source for nutrient enrichment of local surface waters. Capturing nutrients prior to runoff leaving the production area could reduce the risk of transport. Commercially available systems for nitrogen (N) and P removal from stormwater are available but too expensive for widespread adoption on small, privately owned farms. The P adsorption capacities and hydraulic conductivities of locally-sourced iron red mud (RM) and aluminum water treatment residual (WT) were determined for potential on-farm treatment use. The byproducts were air-dried and separated into ≤2-, ≤6-, and ≤12.5-mm particle size fractions. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (HC) was determined for each particle-size fraction and results evaluated for the material’s ability to transmit a 25-year, 30-min rainfall of 6.6 cm. While the HC of ≤6-mm particles of each byproduct did not differ (p > 0.05; 4.1 and 4.6 cm·min-1), for ≤12.5-mm particles it was greater (p > 0.05) for WT than RM (15.4 and 8.0 cm·min-1, respectively). However, all byproduct size fractions transmitted flow sufficiently to accommodate the baseline storm. Phosphorous adsorption maxima of ≤2-mm fraction for RM and WT were 25 and 10 g·P·kg-1, respectively. Using a solution containing 6 mg·P·L-1, rep-resenting the measured runoff-P concentration from areas adjacent to poultry house ventilation fans, the ≤2-mm fraction of RM removed 98% of added P and WT 84%. The ≤6-mm fraction of RM and WT removed 56% and 57% of added P, respectively, while the ≤12.5-mm fraction adsorbed only 28% and 10%. Results indicate the potential use of low-cost RM and WT byproducts to sequester P in runoff prior to P leaving poultry farm production areas.
Cite this paper: Herron, S. , Sharpley, A. , Brye, K. and Miller, D. (2016) Optimizing Hydraulic and Chemical Properties of Iron and Aluminum Byproducts for Use in On-Farm Containment Structures for Phosphorus Removal. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 1835-1849. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.712146.
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