Back
 AJCM  Vol.1 No.3 , September 2011
Simulation of Human Phonation with Vocal Nodules
Abstract: The geometric and biomechanical properties of the larynx strongly influence voice quality and efficiency. A physical understanding of phonation natures in pathological conditions is important for predictions of how voice disorders can be treated using therapy and rehabilitation. Here, we present a continuum-based numerical model of phonation that considers complex fluid-structure interactions occurring in the airway. This model considers a three-dimensional geometry of vocal folds, muscle contractions, and viscoelastic properties to provide a realistic framework of phonation. The vocal fold motion is coupled to an unsteady compressible respiratory flow, allowing numerical simulations of normal and diseased phonations to derive clear relationships between actual laryngeal structures and model parameters such as muscle activity. As a pilot analysis of diseased phonation, we model vocal nodules, the mass lesions that can appear bilaterally on both sides of the vocal folds. Comparison of simulations with and without the nodules demonstrates how the lesions affect vocal fold motion, consequently restricting voice quality. Furthermore, we found that the minimum lung pressure required for voice production increases as nodules move closer to the center of the vocal fold. Thus, simulations using the developed model may provide essential insight into complex phonation phenomena and further elucidate the etiologic mechanisms of voice disorders.
Cite this paper: nullS. Deguchi and Y. Kawahara, "Simulation of Human Phonation with Vocal Nodules," American Journal of Computational Mathematics, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 189-201. doi: 10.4236/ajcm.2011.13022.
References

[1]   K. Ishizaka and J. L. Flanagan, “Synthesis of Voiced Sounds from a Two-Mass Model of the Vocal Cords,” Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 51, No. 6, 1972, pp. 1233-1268.

[2]   M. Hirano, “Morphological Structure of the Vocal Cord as a Vibrator and Its Variations,” Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1974, pp. 89-94. doi:10.1159/000263771

[3]   B. H. Story and I. R. Titze, “Voice Simulation with a Body-Cover Model of the Vocal Folds,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 97, No. 2, 1995, pp. 1249-1260. doi:10.1121/1.412234

[4]   T. Ikeda, Y. Matsuzaki and T. Aomatsu, “A Numerical Analysis of Phonation Using a Two-Dimensional Flexible Channel Model of the Vocal Folds,” Journal of Biomechanical Engi-neering, Vol. 123, No. 6, 2001, pp. 571- 579. doi:10.1115/1.1408939

[5]   C. Tao, J. J. Jiang and Y. Zhang, “Simulation of Vocal Fold Impact Pressures with a Self-Oscillating Finite-Element Model,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 119, No. 6, 2006, pp. 3987-3994. doi:10.1121/1.2197798

[6]   S. Deguchi, Y. Matsuzaki and T. Ikeda, “Numerical Analysis of Effects of Transglottal Pressure Change on Fundamental Frequency of Phonation,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, Vol. 116, No. 2, 2007, pp. 128-134.

[7]   I. T. Tokuda, J. Horácek, J. G. Svec and H. Herzel, “Comparison of Biomechanical Modeling of Register Transitions and Voice Instabilities with Excised Larynx Ex-periments,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 122, No. 1, 2007, pp. 519-531. doi:10.1121/1.2741210

[8]   X. Zheng, S. Bielamowicz, H. Luo and R. Mittal, “A Computational Study of the Effect of False Vocal Folds on Glottal Flow and Vocal Fold Vibration during Phonation,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2009, pp. 625-642. doi:10.1007/s10439-008-9630-9

[9]   H. Hirose, “Clinical Aspects of Voice Disorders,” Interuna Publishers, Tokyo, 1998, p. 173.

[10]   L. Li, H. Saigusa, Y. Nakazawa, T. Nakamura, T. Komachi, S. Yamaguchi, A. Liu, Y. Sugisaki, E. Shinya and H. Shen, “A Pathological Study of Bamboo Nodule of the Vocal Fold,” Journal of Voice, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2010, pp. 738-741. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2009.06.003

[11]   D. Wong, M. R. Ito and N. B. Cox, “Observation of Perturbations in a Lumped-Element Model of the Vocal Folds with Application to Some Pathological Cases,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 89, No. 1, 1991, pp. 383-394. doi:10.1121/1.400472

[12]   F. Alipour, D. A. Berry and I. R. Titze, “A Finite Element Model of Vocal-Fold Vibration,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 108, No. 6, 2000, pp. 3003-3012. doi:10.1121/1.1324678

[13]   I. R. Titze and T. Riede, “A Cervid Vocal Fold Model Suggests Greater Glottal Efficiency in Calling at High Frequencies,” PLoS Computational Biology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2010, e1000897. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000897

[14]   A. Yang, J. Lohscheller, D. A. Berry, S. Becker, U. Eysholdt, D. Voigt and M. D?llinger, “Biomechanical Modeling of the Three-Dimensional Aspects of Human Vocal Fold Dynamics,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 127, No. 2, 2010, pp. 1014-1031. doi:10.1121/1.3277165

[15]   S. Deguchi and T. Hyakutake, “Theoretical Consideration of the Flow Behavior in Oscillating Vocal Fold,” Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 42, No. 7, 2009, pp. 824-829. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.01.027

[16]   S. Deguchi, “Mechanism of and Threshold Biomechanical Conditions for Falsetto Voice Onset,” PLoS One, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2011, e17503. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017503

[17]   O. Fujimura, “Body-Cover Theory of the Vocal Fold and Its Phonetic Implications,” In: K. Stevens and M. Hirano, Eds., Vocal Fold Physiology, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1981, pp. 271-288.

[18]   M. Hirano, K. Kiyokawa and S. Kurita, “Laryngeal Muscles and Glottic Shaping,” In: O. Fujimura, Ed., Vocal Physiology, Mechanisms and Functions, Raven Press, New York, 1988, pp. 49-65.

[19]   I. R. Titze, J. J. Jiang and D. G. Druker, “Preliminaries to the Body-Cover Theory of Pitch Control,” Journal of Voice, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1988, pp. 314-319. doi:10.1016/S0892-1997(88)80004-3

[20]   I. R. Titze, E. S. Luschei and M. Hirano, “The Role of the Thyroarytenoid Muscle in Regulation of Fundamental Frequency,” Journal of Voice, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1989, pp. 213-224. doi:10.1016/S0892-1997(89)80003-7

[21]   S. Deguchi, Y. Kawahara and S. Takahashi, “Cooperative Regulation of Vocal Fold Morphology and Stress by the Cricothyroid and Thy-roarytenoid Muscles,” Journal of Voice, in press.

[22]   T. Baer, J. C. Gore, L. C. Gracco and P. W. Nye, “Analysis of Vocal Tract Shape and Dimensions Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Vowels,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 90, No. 2, 1991, pp. 799-828. doi:10.1121/1.401949

[23]   G. R. Farley, “A Quantitative Model of Voice F0 Control,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 95, No. 2, 1994, pp. 1017-1029. doi:10.1121/1.408465

[24]   T. Ikeda and Y. Matsuzaki, “A One-Dimensional Unsteady Separable and Reattachable Flow Model for Collapsible Tube-Flow Analysis,” Journal of Bio-mechanical Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 2, 1999, pp. 153-159. doi:10.1115/1.2835097

[25]   S. Deguchi, Y. Miyake, Y. Tamura and S. Washio, “Wavelike Motion of a Mechanical Vocal Fold Model at the Onset of Self-Excited Oscillation,” Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2006, pp. 246-255. doi:10.1299/jbse.1.246

[26]   I. R. Titze, “The Physics of Small-Amplitude Oscillation of the Vocal Folds,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 83, No. 4, 1988, pp. 1536-1552. doi:10.1121/1.395910

[27]   J. C. Lucero and L. L. Koenig, “On the Relation between the Phonation Threshold Lung Pressure and the Oscillation Frequency of the Vocal Folds,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 121, No. 6, 2007, pp. 3280-3283. doi:10.1121/1.2722210

 
 
Top