Back
 JEP  Vol.7 No.11 , October 2016
Biosorption of Heavy Metal by Algae Biomass in Surface Water
Abstract:
Discharging wastewater containing heavy metals of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd into water bodies can cause toxicity in plants and aquatic animals and some of them will be unable to survive except algae. Wastewater treatment method to remove heavy metal contaminants includes chemical precipitation, ion exchange, membrane, filtration, adsorption using activated carbon. However, these methods are either expensive or have other disadvantages such as high energy consumption and inefficiencies when existing heavy metals are at trace concentration. Biosorption using algae biomass can be an alternative method to eliminate heavy metals. The objective of the project is to investigate the capability of Marine Algae (MA) and Freshwater Algae (FA) bi-omass in adsorbing heavy metals of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd from water medium using synthetic water and industrial water. MA and FA were obtained from the eastern coast of Pulau Ubin and local fish farm respectively. After being fully washed with deionised water, dried in a furnace for 105°C, they are grinded to pass 1 mm2 of siever. MA and FA were characterised using FTIR to determine their functional groups. An industrial water was collected from industrial discharge from metal fac-tories in northern side of Singapore. Effect of adsorption time, adsorbent concentra-tion, and pH were studied. The result showed that FA and MA had a higher capability in adsorbing a total metal of about 40 ppm level from an industrial water, or 4 times than synthetic water concentration, at the same adsorbent dosage of 50 mg. In con-clusion, the presence of various functional groups, hydroxyl, carboxylic and amine groups, in all MA and FA samples had enabled the algae biomass to adsorb heavy metals of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn from synthetic and industrial water. Due to their bio-sorptive properties and fast adsorption capability, algae could be a potential method for cleaning up surface water or post-treatment of wastewater and minimise the cost of eutrophication.
Cite this paper: Utomo, H. , Tan, K. , Choong, Z. , Yu, J. , Ong, J. and Lim, Z. (2016) Biosorption of Heavy Metal by Algae Biomass in Surface Water. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 1547-1560. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.711128.
References

[1]   Freitas, O.M.M., Martins, R.J.E., Delerue-Matos, C.M. and Boaventura, R.A. (2008) Removal of Cd, Zn and Pb from Aqueous Solution by Brown Marine Macroalgae: Kinetic Modelling. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153, 493-501.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.08.081

[2]   Gamakaranage, C.S.S.K., et al. (2011) Complications and Management of Acute Copper Sulphate Poisoning; A Case Discussion. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 6, 34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1745-6673-6-34

[3]   Potera, C. (2004) Copper in Drinking Water: Using Symptoms of Exposure to Define Safety. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, A568.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.112-a568b

[4]   WHO (2001) Cadmium in Drinking Water, Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/80/Rev/1.

[5]   WHO (1996) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 2nd Edition, Vol. 2, Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information, World Health Organization, Geneva.

[6]   De la Noue, J. and De Pauw, N. (1988) The Potential of Microalgal Biotechnology. A Review of Production and Uses of Microalgae. Biotechnology Advances, 6, 725-770.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0734-9750(88)91921-0

[7]   Soeder, C.J., Payer, H.D., Runkel, K.H., Beine, J. and Briele, E. (1978) Sorption and Concentration of Toxic Minerals by Mass Cultures of Chlorococcales. Mitteilungen Internationale Vereinigung für The oretische und Angew and telimnologie, 21, 575-584.

[8]   Kaplan, D., Christiaen, D. and Arad, S. (1988) Binding of Heavy Metals by Algal Polysaccharides. In: Stadler, T., Mollion, J., Verdus, M.C., Karamanos, Y., Morvan, H. and Christiaen, D., Eds., Algal Biotechnology, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 179-187.

[9]   Gerhardt, M.B., Green, F.B., Newman, R.D., Lundquist, T.J., Tresan, R.B. and Oswald, W.J. (1991) Removal of Selenium Using a Novel Algal Bacterial Process. Research Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 63, 779-805.

[10]   Hammouda, O., Gaber, A. and Abdel-Raouf, N. (1995) Microalgae and Wastewater Treatment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 31, 205-210.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/eesa.1995.1064

[11]   Hua, C.-X., Traina, S.J., Logan, T.J., Gustafson, T., Sayre, R.T. and Cai, X.H. (1995) Applications of Eukaryotic Algae for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 4, 338-344.

[12]   Baraka, M.A. (2010) New Trends in Removing Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 4, 361-377.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2010.07.019

[13]   Lee, A.C. and Liao, L.M. (2009) New Records of Marine Algae on Artificial Structures and Intertidal Flats in Coastal Waters of Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 22, 5-40.

[14]   Seaweed (2016) What Are Seaweeds?
http://www.seaweed.ie/Algae/seaweeds.php

[15]   United State Geological Survey (1978) Primer on Lakes in Washington (Water Supply Bulletin). United States Department of the Geological Interior Survey, Washington, 49.

 
 
Top