rella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae), occurred after application of Melia extracts [13] . Also, population decrease of the pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on swisschard and cucumber plants, as well as the vegetable leafminer, L. sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on cowpea plants, has been observed [14] . This difference most probably occurred because of the significantly larger body mass of the silkworm compared with the leafminers.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, the present study showed that M. azedarach extracts clearly had adverse effects on mulberry whiteflies P. machili and P. mori, by increasing the nymphal mortality when sprayed on mulberry leaves, in laboratory conditions. Also, no negative effect on silkworm survivorship when fed with treated leaves was observed. However, these results are not sufficient to assess whether the achieved effects of Melia ingredients provide an economically relevant protection of mulberry trees from damage by this pest species. Further experiments in the orchard are needed in order to test the efficacy of Melia extracts in real conditions. Also, these extracts are potentially promising methods to be used in sustainable agriculture approaches against the mulberry whiteflies and they have to be tested for their effects on the biological control agents of these pests. Beyond this, the results of this study encourage to test effects of Melia extracts on other pests of mulberry and other tree species.


The authors would like to thank Mrs. Zoe Thanou for the technical support in spraying applications.

Cite this paper
Tsagkarakis, A. , Babili, R. , Harizanis, P. and Perdikis, D. (2016) Extracts of Melia azedarach Increases Mulberry Whitefly Mortality without Affecting Silkworm Survivorship. Advances in Entomology, 4, 293-298. doi: 10.4236/ae.2016.45030.

[1]   FAO (2016) Conservation Status of Sericulture Germplasm Resources in the World.

[2]   ISC (2016) Statistics of International Sericultural Commission.

[3]   Ombrello, T. (2012) The Mulberry Tree and Its Silkworm Connection. Ph.D. Thesis, Union County College, Cranford.

[4]   Dadd, R.H. (1973) Insect Nutrition: Current Developments and Metabolic Implications. Annual Review of Entomology, 18, 381-420.

[5]   Kanekatsu, R., Kitagawa, R. and Yanagisawa, Y. (1991) Using Semisynthetic Diets. Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan, 60, 55-62.

[6]   Martin, J.H. (1987) An Identification Guide to Common Whitefly Pest Species of the World (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). Tropical Pest Management, 33, 298-322.

[7]   Martin, J.H., Mifsud, D. and Rapisarda, C. (2000) The Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 90, 407-448.

[8]   Bureekham, I., Chareonsom, K., Sayampol, B., Aukarathanakul, P., Suasaad, V., Amornsak, V. and Kantaratanakul, S. (1987) Laboratory Practice in Agricultural Entomology. Kasetsart University Press, Bangkok.

[9]   SAS Institute (2011) JMP® 10.0 User Guide. 2nd Edition, SAS Institute Inc., Cary.

[10]   Abou-FakhrHammad, E. and McAuslane, H. (2006) Effect of Melia azedarach L. Extract on Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Its Biocontrol Agent Eretmocerus rui (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Environmental Entomology, 35, 740-745.

[11]   Abou-Fakhr Hammad, E.M., Nemer, N.M., Hawi, Z.K. and Hanna, L.T. (2000) Responses of the Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, to the Chinaberry Tree (Melia azedarach L.) and Its Extracts. Annals of Applied Biology, 137, 79-88.

[12]   Abou-Fakhr Hammad, E.M., Zournajian, H. and Talhouk, S. (2001) Efficacy of Extracts of Melia azedarach L. Callus, Leaves and Fruits against Adults of the Sweetpotato Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hom. Aleyrodidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 125, 483-488.

[13]   Mckenna, M.M., Abou-Fakhr Hammad, E.M. and Farran, M. (2013) Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) Fruit Extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistiscitrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). SpringerPlus, 2, 144.

[14]   Abou-Fakhr Hammad, E. and McAuslane, H. (2010) Effect of Melia azedarach L. Extract on Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Its Biocontrol Agent Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 8, 1247-1252.