rella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae), occurred after application of Melia extracts  . Also, population decrease of the pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on swisschard and cucumber plants, as well as the vegetable leafminer, L. sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on cowpea plants, has been observed  . This difference most probably occurred because of the significantly larger body mass of the silkworm compared with the leafminers.
In conclusion, the present study showed that M. azedarach extracts clearly had adverse effects on mulberry whiteflies P. machili and P. mori, by increasing the nymphal mortality when sprayed on mulberry leaves, in laboratory conditions. Also, no negative effect on silkworm survivorship when fed with treated leaves was observed. However, these results are not sufficient to assess whether the achieved effects of Melia ingredients provide an economically relevant protection of mulberry trees from damage by this pest species. Further experiments in the orchard are needed in order to test the efficacy of Melia extracts in real conditions. Also, these extracts are potentially promising methods to be used in sustainable agriculture approaches against the mulberry whiteflies and they have to be tested for their effects on the biological control agents of these pests. Beyond this, the results of this study encourage to test effects of Melia extracts on other pests of mulberry and other tree species.
The authors would like to thank Mrs. Zoe Thanou for the technical support in spraying applications.
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