WJM  Vol.1 No.4 , August 2011
Micro Crack of Aluminum Sheet During Cold Rolling
The micro crack of aluminum sheet during cold rolling lubricated with emulsions is investigated. Experi-ments show that micro cracks occur after cold rolling process and this is attributed to various parameters, for instance, the thin oxide film formed at the sheet surface. The micro crack spacing thus becomes an important parameter which deserves more concerns. The aspect ratio of these micro cracks is then analyzed theoreti-cally, which takes into consideration of the oxide fracture process. The good agreement between the obser-vations and the theoretical predictions validates the analysis. The approach can shed some new lights on the mechanical process of aluminium sheet during cold rolling.

Cite this paper
nullC. Zhang, S. Liu and C. Zhang, "Micro Crack of Aluminum Sheet During Cold Rolling," World Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2011, pp. 169-175. doi: 10.4236/wjm.2011.14022.
[1]   S. Toros, F. Ozturk and I. Kacar, “Review of Warm Forming of Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, Vol. 207, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 1-12. Hdoi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.03.057

[2]   J. A. Schey, “Surface Roughness Effects in Metalworking Lubrication,” Lubrication Engineering, Vol. 39, 1983, pp. 376-382.

[3]   D. J. Meierhofer and K. A. Stelson, “Measurement of the Interfacial Stresses in Rolling Using the Elastic Deformation of the Roll,” Journal of Engineering Industry, Vol. 109, 1987, pp. 362-369. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.3187140

[4]   L. Lai-Seng and J. G. Lenard, “Study of Friction in Cold Strip Rolling,” Journal of Engineering Material Technology, Vol. 106, No. 2, 1984, pp. 139-146. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.3225688

[5]   M. P. F. Sutcliffe, “Flattening of Random Rough Surfaces in Metal Forming Processes,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 121, 1999, pp. 433-440. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.2834086

[6]   M. P. F. Sutcliffe and H. R. Le, “Measurements of Surface Roughness in Cold Metal in the Mixed Lubrication Regime,” STLE Tribology Transactions, Vol. 43, 2000, pp. 39-44. Hdoi:org/10.1080/10402000008982310

[7]   H. R. Le and M. P. F. Sutcliffe, “A Friction Model for Cold Strip Rolling with Two-wavelength Surface Rough- ness in the Mixed Lubrication Regime,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 125, 2003, pp. 670-677. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.1538191

[8]   H. S. Lin, N. Marsault and W. R. D. Wilson, “A Mixed Lubrication Model for Cold Strip Rolling—Part I: Theoretical,” STLE Tribology Transactions, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1998, pp. 317-326. Hdoi:org/10.1080/10402009808983754

[9]   P. M. Lugt and W. E. ten Papel, “The Influence of Elastic Deformation of the Roll and the Sheet in a Hydrodynamically Lubricated Cold Rolling Process,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 117, No. 3, 1995, pp. 468-475. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.2831277

[10]   U. Saeed and G. A. Lenard, “A Comparison of Cold Rolling Theories Based on the Equilibrium Approach,” Journal Engineering Material Technology, Vol. 102, No. 2, 1980, pp. 223-228. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.3224801

[11]   A. Cambiella, J. M. Benito, C. Pazos, J. Coca, M. Ratoi, and H. A. Spikes, “The Effect of Emulsifier Concentration on the Lubrication Properties of Oil-in-Water Emulsions,” Tribology Letters, Vol. 22, 2006, pp. 53-65. Hdoi:org/10.1007/s11249-006-9072-1

[12]   Z. L. Qiu, W. Y. D. Yuen and A. K. Tieu, “Mixed-film Lubrication Theory and Tension Effects on Metal Rolling Processes,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 121, No. 4, 1999, pp. 908-915. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.2834154

[13]   S. W. Lo and K. J. Chung, “The Optimum Condition of Manufacturing a Smooth Engineered Surface by Internal-ironing Process,” Tribology Transactions, Vol. 41, 1998, pp. 563-571. Hdoi:org/10.1080/10402009808983783

[14]   T. Mizuno and M. Okamoto, “Effects of Lubricant Viscosity at Pressure and Sliding Velocity on Lubricating Conditions in the Compression- Friction Test on Sheet Metals,” Journal of Lubrication Technology, Vol. 104, 1982, pp. 53-59. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.3253164

[15]   R. Ahmed and M P. F. Sutcliffe, “Identification of Surface Features on Cold Rolled Stainless Steel Strip,” Wear, Vol. 244, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 61-70. Hdoi:org/10.1016/S0043-1648(00)00442-7

[16]   H. R. Le and M. P. F. Sutcliffe, “Analysis of Surface Roughness of Cold-rolled Aluminium Foil,” Wear, Vol. 244, 2000, pp. 71-78. Hdoi:org/10.1016/S0043-1648(00)00441-5

[17]   S. W. Lo and W. R. D. Wilson, “A Theoretical Model of Micro-Pool Lubrication in Metal Forming,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 121, No. 4, 1999, pp. 731-738. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.2834129

[18]   M. P. F. Sutcliffe, H. R. Le and R. Ahmed, “Modeling of Micro-pit Evolution in Rolling or Strip-Drawing,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 123, 2001, pp. 791-798. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.1352741

[19]   R. Ahmed and M. P. F. Sutcliffe, “An Experimental Investigation of Surface Pit Evolution during Cold-rolling or Drawing of Stainless Steel Strip,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 123, 2001, pp. 1-7. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.1327580

[20]   M. P. F. Sutcliffe, R. Combarieu, M. Repoux and P. Montmitonnet, “Tribology of Plane Strain Compression Tests on Aluminium Strip using ToF-SIMS Analysis of Transfer Films,” Wear, Vol. 254, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 65-79. Hdoi:org/10.1016/S0043-1648(02)00295-8

[21]   P. Montmitonnet, F. Delamare and B. Rizoulieres, “Tran- sfer Layer and Friction in Cold Metal Strip Rolling Processes,” Wear, Vol. 245, 2000, pp. 125-135. Hdoi:org/10.1016/S0043-1648(00)00473-7

[22]   F. Chambat, M. Lashermes and H. Hendricks, “Organometallic Compounds Produced during Aluminium Cold Rolling,” Lubrication Technology, Vol. 43, 1987, pp. 522-527.

[23]   H. R. Le, M. P. F. Sutcliffe, P. Z. Wang and G. T. Burstein, “Surface Oxide Fracture in Cold Aluminium Rolling,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2004, pp. 911-920. Hdoi:org/10.1016/j.actamat.2003.10.027

[24]   A. Al-Sharif, K. Chamniprasart, K. R. Rajagopal and A. Z. Szeri, “Lubrication with Binary Mixtures: Liquid-liquid Emulsion,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 115, 1993, pp. 46-55. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.2920985

[25]   S. H. Wang, A. Z. Szeri and K. R. Rajagopal, “Lubrication with Emulsion in Cold Rolling,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 115, No. 3, 1993, pp. 523-531. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.2921669

[26]   K. Chamniprasart, A. Al-Sharif, K. R. Rajagopal and A. Z. Szeri, “Lubrication with Binary Mixtures: Bubbly Oil,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 115, No. 2, 1993, pp. 253- 260. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.2920999

[27]   S. H. Wang, A. Al-Sharif, K. R. Rajagopal and A. Z. Szeri, “Lubrication with Binary Mixtures: Liquid-liquid Emulsion in an EHL Conjunction,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 115, No. 2, 1993, pp. 515-522. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.2921668

[28]   A. Shirizly and J. G. Lenard, “Emulsions versus Neat Oils in the Cold Rolling of Carbon Steel Strips,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 122, No. 3, 2000, pp. 550-556. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.555400

[29]   S. W. Lo, T. C. Yang, Y. A. Cian and K. C. Huang, “A Model for Lubrication by Oil-in-water Emulsions,” Journal of Tribology, Vol. 132, No. 1, 2010, pp. 011801- 011810. Hdoi:org/10.1115/1.4000274

[30]   B. X. Xu, “Bibliography of New Standards and Engineering Applications of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloy Products both at Home and Abroad,” Yingsheng Radio & Visual Press, Beijing, 2004.