In rural areas, road traffic injury was more and severe than in urban areas [10] [11] . The cost of injury and death caused by road traffic injuries among Iranian occupants were 587 and 451 million dollars, respectively [11] . The World Health Organization in its global report of road safety 2013 announced that the share of road users in Iran was: 28% passenger, 23% motorcyclist, 26% occupants and 23% drivers [12] . The study showed that car and motorcycle occupants were more injured than other road users. In other studies, pedestrians and motorcyclists were more vulnerable than others [13] - [15] . The World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, published by the World Health Organization and the World Bank, states that road traffic crashes result in at least 1.2 million deaths and over 50 million injuries each year, that road traffic deaths and injuries are forecast to increase by more than 65% by 2020. Road traffic injury prevention was considered as prioritizing prevention programs. Among road users, occupants are also included [16] [17] . The study showed that the highest percent of injury occurred in car and motorcycle occupants and the highest percent of death were observed in car occupants. Other studies also showed that car and motorcycle occupants were more vulnerable road users [18] - [20] . The study showed risk of death was higher among injured 30 years and over, in motor ways and high ways, main roads and rural secondary. Suriyawongpaisal et al showed that a higher rural case-fatality rate was observed in comparison to urban areas [21] . Chang et al showed that there was the relationship between injury severity and driver/vehicle characteristics, highway/environmental variables and accidental specification variables. The most important variable associated with injury intensity was, pedestrians, motorcycle riders have higher risks of injury than other types of vehicle drivers.

The finding was in line with results from Chang’s study [22] . The study showed that the highest percent of injury and death was observed in rainy or snowy weather condition. Other studies showed that rainy weather, mountainous area and other land users have the same effect on injury and death occurrence [23] - [25] .

Reducing the road traffic injuries requires that increased attention be paid to improving the safety of occupants, cyclists and motorcyclists. Fifty percent of all road traffic deaths occur among these road users. Governments and policy making must focus on safety and mobility of these more vulnerable road users, and their safer transport systems [26] . Hence policy makers should modify regulations in the event of occupants’ safety as a priority. It seems that the public has to be more educated on seat belt usage in line with risk. In this study the rate of injury and death was high on the main roads. Intelligent system is necessary equipment in a country’s major roads monitoring and custodians must consider its significance in road traffic injury prevention planning. Large volume of information could be the strength of the study. Data was collected at the scene, with some of information being incomplete. This deficiency could be considered as limitation of the study.

5. Conclusion

Among all vehicles, car (as a semi-heavy vehicle) and motorcycle (as a light vehicle) occupants were more injured. Hence car occupants and motorcyclist need urgent attention especially in motor ways and high ways, main roads and rural secondary because they are more vulnerable than other road users.


All authors willing to express their gratitude to Safety Promotion and injury prevention research center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences to scientific advices.

Conflict of Interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Funding Support


Authors Contribution

Elaheh Ainy, design, monitoring, data gathering, analysis and manuscript writing. Hamid Soori, design, monitoring data gathering, analysis and manuscript writing; Ali Khorshidi, analysis and manuscript writing; Ayad Bahadori Monfared, design and manuscript writing; Mashyaneh Haddadi, design, monitoring data gathering, analysis and manuscript writing.

Cite this paper
Ainy, E. , Khorshidi, A. , Monfared, A. , Soori, H. and Haddadi, M. (2016) Epidemiological Pattern of Road Traffic Injuries among Occupants’ Vehicles in 2012. Journal of Transportation Technologies, 6, 277-285. doi: 10.4236/jtts.2016.65025.

[1]   World Health Organization (2013) Pedestrian Safety: A Road Safety Manual for Decision-Makers and Practitioners.

[2]   Montazeri, A. (2004) Road-Traffic-Related Mortality in Iran: A Descriptive Study. Public health, 118, 110-113.

[3]   Heydari, S.T., Hoseinzadeh, A., Ghaffarpasand, F., et al. (2013) Epidemiological Characteristics of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Fars Province, Iran: A Community-Based Survey. Public health, 127, 704-709.

[4]   Ghadipasha, M., Vaghefi, S.S., Esfeh, S.K., Teimoori, M., Ouhadi, A.R. and Mirhosseini, S.M. (2015) An Annual Analysis of Clinical Diagnosis versus Autopsy Findings in Fatal Motor Vehicle Accident in Legal Medicine Organization of Kerman Province, Iran. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 34, 164-167.

[5]   Driving, R.A.I. (2001) Motor-Vehicle Occupant Injury: Strategies for Increasing Use of Child Safety Seats, Increasing Use of Safety Belts, and Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving. MMWR. Recommendations and Reports, 50, 1-13.

[6]   Martinez, R. (1997) Traffic Safety Facts (1996): A Compilation of Motor Vehicle Crash Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. DIANE Publishing, USA.

[7]   Facts, T.S. (2003) A Compilation of Motor Vehicle Crash Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. DOT HS, 809, 775.

[8]   Fhwa, U. (2006) Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions and Performance. US Department of Transportation.

[9]   Li, G., Braver, E.R. and Chen, L.H. (2003) Fragility versus Excessive Crash Involvement as Determinants of High Death Rates per Vehicle-Mile of Travel among Older Drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 35, 227-235.

[10]   Zangooei Dovom, H., Shafahi, Y. and Zangooei Dovom, M. (2013) Fatal Accident Distribution by Age, Gender and Head Injury, and Death Probability at Accident Scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 20, 121-133.

[11]   Ainy, E., Soori, H., Ganjali, M., Le, H., and Baghfalaki, T. (2014) Estimating Cost of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran Using Willingness to Pay (WTP) Method. PLoS ONE, 9, e112721.

[12]   Smith, K.M. and Cummings, P. (2006) Passenger Seating Position and the Risk of Passenger Death in Traffic Crashes: A Matched Cohort Study. Injury Prevention, 12, 83-86.

[13]   Dandona, R., Kumar, G.A., Raj, T.S. and Dandona, L. (2006) Patterns of Road Traffic Injuries in a Vulnerable Population in Hyderabad, India. Injury Prevention, 12, 183-188.

[14]   Zimmerman, K., Mzige, A.A., Kibatala, P.L., Museru, L.M. and Guerrero, A. (2012) Road Traffic Injury Incidence and Crash Characteristics in Dar es Salaam: A Population Based Study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 45, 204-210.

[15]   Nantulya, V.M. and Reich, M.R. (2002) The Neglected Epidemic: Road Traffic Injuries in Developing Countries. British Medical Journal, 324, 1139.

[16]   Peden, M. (2004) World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[17]   World Health Organization (2009) Global Status Report on Road Safety: Time for Action. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[18]   Ramage-Morin, P.L. (2008) Motor Vehicle Accident Deaths, 1979 to 2004. Health Reports, 19, 45.

[19]   Assembly, U.G. (2005) Improving Global Road Safety. RES/60/5.

[20]   Svilanovic, G. (2008) The Pan-European Perspective for the Economic Integration of South-Eastern Europe: The Role of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. PAN, 2008.

[21]   Suriyawongpaisal, P. and Kanchanasut, S. (2003) Road Traffic Injuries in Thailand: Trends, Selected Underlying Determinants and Status of Intervention. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 10, 95-104.

[22]   Chang, L.Y. and Wang, H.W. (2006) Analysis of Traffic Injury Severity: An Application of Non-Parametric Classification Tree Techniques. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38, 1019-1027.

[23]   Norrman, J., Eriksson, M. and Lindqvist, S. (2000) Relationships between Road Slipperiness, Traffic Accident Risk and Winter Road Maintenance Activity. Climate Research, 15, 185-193.

[24]   Brodsky, H. and Hakkert, A.S. (1988) Risk of a Road Accident in Rainy Weather. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 20, 161-176.

[25]   Maheshwari, J. and Mohan, D. (1989) Road Traffic Injuries in Delhi: A Hospital Based Study. Journal of Traffic Medicine, 17, No. 3-4.

[26]   Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013: Supporting a Decade of Action. World Health Organization, Geneva.