Back
 Health  Vol.8 No.12 , September 2016
A Craniometer with a Headband Can Be a Reliable Tool to Measure Plagiocephaly and Brachycephaly in Clinical Practice
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the intra- and inter-reliability for measuring infants with plagiocephaly and brachycephaly with a craniometer when using a marked headband as landmarks. Subjects: Six physiotherapists and eight infants participated in the study. Methods: The physiotherapists measured all infants twice; each infant was measured with the same headband and craniometer. The physiotherapists were blinded to measurements carried out by their colleagues. The infants with their parents changed places in the room to minimize the possibility that the physiotherapists would remember their first measurements of any infant. Results: There was a high intra- and inter-reliability, for intra-reliability ICC 0.96 to 0.99 and for inter-reliability ICC 0.98. Conclusion: It is possible to achieve a high intra- and inter-reliability when using a headband and craniometer when measuring cranial vault asymmetry for plagiocephaly and cephalic ratio for brachycephaly.
Cite this paper: Öhman, A. (2016) A Craniometer with a Headband Can Be a Reliable Tool to Measure Plagiocephaly and Brachycephaly in Clinical Practice. Health, 8, 1258-1265. doi: 10.4236/health.2016.812128.
References

[1]   Wennergren, G. (2004) Prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Pediatric Pulmonology, 26, 110-111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.70072

[2]   Argenta, L.C., David, L.R., Wilson, J.A. and Bell, W.O. (1996) An Increase in Infant Cranial Deformity with Supine Sleeping Position. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 7, 5-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001665-199601000-00005

[3]   Kane, A.A., Mitchell, L.E., Craven, K.P. and Marsch, J.L. (1996) Observations on a Recent Increase in Plagiocephaly without Synostosis. Pediatrics, 6, 877-885.

[4]   Christensen, Ostergaard, J.R. and Norholt, S.E. (2002) Positional Plagiocephaly. Ugeskr Laeger, 165, 46-50.

[5]   Mawji, A., Robinson Vollman, A., Hatfield, J., McNeil, D.A. and Sauvé, R. (2013) The Incidence of Positional Plagiocephaly: A Cohort Study. Pediatrics, 132, 298-304.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-3438

[6]   Mildred, J., Beard, K., Dallwitz, Z. and Unwin, J. (1995) Play Position Is Influenced by Knowledge of SIDS Sleep Position Recommendations. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 31, 499-502.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1754.1995.tb00871.x

[7]   Aarnivala, H.E.I., Valkama, A.M. and Pirttiniemi, P.M. (2014) Cranial Shape, Size and Cervical Motion in Normal Newborns. Early Human Development, 90, 425-430.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.05.007

[8]   Golden, K.A., Beals, S.P., Littlefield, T.R. and Pomatto, J.K. (1999) Sternocleidomastoid Imbalance versus Congenital Muscular Torticollis: Their Relationship to Positional Plagiocephaly. The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 36, 256-261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/1545-1569(1999)036<0256:SIVCMT>2.3.CO;2

[9]   Hummel, P. and Fortado, D. (2005) Impacting Infant Head Shapes. Advances in Neonatal Care, 5, 329-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adnc.2005.08.009

[10]   Rogers, G.F., Oh, A.K. and Mulliken, J.B. (2009) The Role of Congenital Muscular Torticollis in the Development of Deformational Plagiocephaly. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 123, 643-652.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e318196b9be

[11]   Oh, A.K., Hoy, E.A. and Rogers, G.F. (2009) Predictors of Severity in Deformational Plagiocephaly. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 20, 1-5.

[12]   Cheng, J.C.Y. and Au, A.W.Y. (1994) Infantile Torticollis: A Review of 624 Cases. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 14, 802-808.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01241398-199414060-00022

[13]   Cheng, J.C.Y., Tang, S.P., Chen, T.M.K., Wong, M.W.N. and Wong, E.M.C. (2000) The Clinical Presentation and Outcome of Treatment of Congenital Muscular Torticollis in Infants—A Study of 1086 Cases. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 35, 1091-1099.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jpsu.2000.7833

[14]   Emery, C. (1994) The Determinants of Treatment Duration for Congenital Muscular Torticollis. Physical Therapy, 74, 921-928.

[15]   Binder, H., Eng, G.D., Gasier, J.F. and Koch, B. (1987) Congenital Muscular Torticollis: Results of Conservative Management with Long-Term Follow-Up in 85 Cases. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 68, 222-225.

[16]   Ohman, A., Mardbrink, E.-L., Orefelt, C., Seager, A., Tell, L. and Klackenberg, A. (2013) The Physical Therapy Assessment and Management of Infants with Congenital Muscular Torticollis. A Survey and a Suggested Assessment Protocol for CMT. Journal of Novel Physiotherapy, 3, 165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2165-7025.1000165

[17]   Lin, R.S., Stevens, P.M., Wininger, M. and Castiglione, C.L. (2016) Orthotic Management of Deformational Plagiocephaly: Consensus Clinical Standards of Care. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 53, 394-403.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/15-007

[18]   Likus, W., Bajor, G., Gruszcynska, K., Baron, J., Markowski, J., Machnikowska-Sokolowska, M., Milka, D. and Lepich, T. (2014) Cephalic Index in the First Three Years of Life: Study of Children with Normal Brain Development Based on Computed Tomography. Scientific World Journal, 4, Article ID: 502836.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/502836

[19]   Meyer-Marcotty, P., Bohm, H., Linz, C., Kochel, J., Stellzig-Eisenhauer, A. and Schweitzer, T. (2014) Three-Dimensional Analysis of Cranial Growth from 6 to 12 Months of Age. European Journal of Orthodontics, 36, 489-496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjt010

[20]   Ohman, A. (2012) Inter Rater and Intra Rater Reliability of the Modified Severity Scale for Assessment of Plagiocephaly, among Physical Therapists. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 28, 402-406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09593985.2011.639850

[21]   Schaaf, H., Wilbrand, J.-F., Boedeker, R.-H. and Howaldt, H.-P. (2010) Accuracy of Photographic Assessment Compared with Standard Anthropometric Measurements in Nonsynostotic Cranial Deformities. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 47, 447-453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/09-026

[22]   Van Vlimmeren, L., Takken, T., van Adrichem, L.N., van de ger Graaf, Y., Helders, P.J.M. and Engelbert, R.H.H. (2006) Plagiocephalometry: A Non-Invasive Method to Quantify Asymmetry of the Skull: A Reliability Study. European Journal of Pediatrics, 165, 149-157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-005-0011-1

[23]   Mortenson, P.A. and Steinbok, P. (2006) Quantifying Positional Plagiocephaly: Reliability and Validity of Anthropometric Measurements. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 17, 413- 419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001665-200605000-00005

[24]   Ohman, A. (2014) A Specially Designed Pillow Can Decrease Developmental Plagiocephaly in Young Infants. Health, 6, 1092-1098.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/health.2014.611135

[25]   Ohman, A. (2013) A Pilot Study, a Specially Designed Pillow May Prevent Developmental Plagiocephaly by Reducing Pressure from the Infant Head. Health, 5, 32-37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/health.2013.56A2006

[26]   Farkas, L.G. (1996) Accuracy of Anthropometric Measurements: Past, Present and Future. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 33, 10-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/1545-1569(1996)033<0010:AOAMPP>2.3.CO;2

[27]   Wilbrand, J.-F., Wilbrand, M., Pons-Kuehnemann, J., Blecher, J.-C., Chritophis, P., Howaldt, H.-P. and Schaaf, H. (2011) Value and Reliability of Anthropometric Measure- ments of Cranial Deformity in Early Childhood. Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, 39, 24-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2010.03.010

[28]   Hutchison, B.L., Hutchison, L.A.D., Thompson, J.M.D. and Mitchell, E.D.A. (2005) Quantification of Plagiocephaly and Brachycephaly in Infants Using a Digital Photographic Technique. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 42, 539-547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/04-059r.1

[29]   Yoo, H.-S., Rah, D.K. and Kim, Y.O. (2012) Outcome Analysis of Cranial Molding Therapy in Nonsynostotic Plagiocephaly. Archives of Plastic Surgery, 39, 338-344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5999/aps.2012.39.4.338

[30]   Meraviglia, M.V., Villani, D. and Meghi, P. (2014) Definition and Classification. In: Meraviglia, M.V. and Villani, D., Eds., Positional Plagiocephaly, Springer, Berlin, 7-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-06118-4_2

[31]   Kim, J.K., Kwon, D.R. and Park, G.Y. (2014) A New Ultrasound Method for Assessment of Head Shape Change in Infants with Plagiocephaly. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 38, 541-547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5535/arm.2014.38.4.541

[32]   Wilbrand, J.-F., Schmidtberg, K., Bierther, U., Streckbein, P., Pons-Kuehnemann, J., Chritophis, P., Hahn, A., Schaaf, H. and Howaldt, H.P. (2012) Clinical Classification of Infant Nonsynostostic Cranial Deformity. Journal of Pediatrics, 161, 1120-1125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.05.023

[33]   Wilbrand, J.-F., Lautenbacher, N., Pons-Kühnemann, J., Streckbein, P., Kahling, C., Reinges, M.H.T., Howaldt, H.-P. and Wilbrand, M. (2016) Treated versus Untreated Positional Head Deformity. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 27, 13-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000002167

 
 
Top