Rural land transfer contains two aspects: On the one hand, it is about the transfer of land’s contracted management right; On the other hand, it is about the transfer of collective building land and homestead  . Rural land transfer in China is a specific economic behavior that under China’s family contract responsibility system. The peasant household who has contract and management right of farming land transfer the possession of land management right to other peasant households, large peasant-households and rural economic organization to get return of transferring land use right  . The farmland property right structure is divided into three types of rights: ownership, consulting and management, collective ownership of farmlands, peasants contracted, Rural Land Transfer. Since the founding of new China, the rural land system in China has experienced four stages―the land reform, the primary agricultural cooperatives, the people’s commune and the household contract responsibility system  . Gradually shift from private ownership to collective ownership of rural land ownership, land ownership has experienced a process from the private to the common to private individuals (peasant contract right). With the change of the ownership of land, farmland have experienced five stages―spontaneous to specifications, scattered to scale, and slow to rapid transfers, namely the peasants land ownership under the spontaneous transfer, gradually to limit transfer of agricultural cooperation movement period, the ban on transfer of people’s commune period, gradually relaxing flow at the household contract responsibility period and transfer encouraging at this stage  .
China is in the stage of industry regurgitation feeding agriculture and the cities support the rurals at present, which creates the objective conditions to achieve the urban- rural integration. However, China’s vast territory and there are extreme differences in the natural environment development, traditional culture development and social and economic development. Since the 1980s, the villages and towns construction rapid development, peasants’ living standard enhancement and the planning of the lag of comprehensive management system and other factors produce effects on villages, as a result, decline across China village center, peripheral expansion disorderly phenomena of hollowing out happen   . Especially in the less developed remote rural presents large hollowing out phenomenon. Because of influence of such factors―the thought idea, the natural conditions, economic development level, promoting of rural land transfer is very difficult. The third plenary session of the 17th in 2008 through “the central committee of the communist party of China on promoting rural reform and development of certain major issue decision”, allowing peasants to take various kinds to contract management right of land transfer, so as to promote the economical and intensive, efficient and reasonable use of rural land. From 2000, the rural land transfer problem has gradually became a research hotspot, Chen Yuanyuan  took northwestern Shanxi area as an example, analyzed from the perspective of land transfer influence on peasants’ production efficiency, and came to a conclusion that the northwestern Shanxi area land transfer can improve the land production and peasants’ incomes. Liu Weibai  and other researchers analyzed the rural land transfer pattern in the new period from the aspects of performance and countermeasures. They thought that different areas have different rural land transfer quantity and the market develop at a low speed. Zhong Xiaolan  and other researchers took Guangdong province as an example and researched the relationship between the transfer of rural land transfer intend from a view of peasants cognition. They believed that after exclusion of external factors, peasants involved in land transfer is in direct proportion to the intention and behavior. Existing studies have covered to the cause of the land transfer, benefit, direction, pattern, the desire and behavior of peasant household etc., but most of them are in view of the land transfer where has became more and more size and specification of economy more developed regions. This article takes 22 villages in Beiyuan, Xiangning, Shanxi Province where is covered by Rongzi chateau wine grape planting as an example. By investigating and analyzing the relationship between land transfer and peasants’ income to explore a suitable pattern of the remote rural areas. In order to speed up the less-developed rural land transfer, develop modern agriculture and new rural construction, this article analyzes the feasibility of “enterprise + peasant household” pattern.
2. Research Region, Methodology and Data
2.1. The General Situation of Research Region
Xiangning is located in the southwest of Shanxi province, the west of Linfen and in the south of the Yellow River middle reaches. It is the biggest county in Linfen accounting for 10% of the area, which is abundant in coal resources. The cultivated land of whole county accounted for 16.49% of the total area and grain output reached 91169 tons. The county’s GDP totaled about 8.3 billion yuan. At the same time, rural per capita net income reached 6829 yuan, the urbanization level reached 43.9% (Xiangning’s yearbook in 2015). So the county has been with the conditions that industry nurture agriculture and cities support the countryside. But Xiangning is remote and the coal industry is the leading industry, which leads to the status that most of the village development lags behind and the hollow phenomenon is series, such as Beiyuan (Located in 35˚N ~ 36˚N, where is the junction between the north of Xiangning Yaodu area and Jixian. For the transformation of the model of economic development and extend the industrial chain, the county has established some projects, for example, One Village One Product, “513” Project and Upgrade low-and medium-yield farmland, etc. According to 2005 national goals for the construction of new energy, the energy enterprises in Shanxi―Yongchang source group adjusted development strategy, “consolidate coal industry, march towards light industry, develop regional new pattern industry”. Then, established in 2007 in xiangning North Slope green industry benefit peasants-Shanxi Rongzi Chateau co., LTD is established in Beiyuan of Xiangning, which is a green industry beneficial to peasants.
The company has invested more than 600 million yuan and the wine grape planting base has developed more than 6000 mu. Annual output of wine grape can reach more than 1000 tons. Chateau wine grape planting base in Beiyuan spread to 22 natural village of peasants of nine village committee. The original ordinary peasants gradually transformed into professional grape growers, which has reached more than 3000 people. The base is managed in the way of “company + peasant household” and “linkage between village and enterprises”. That is to say, at the base, peasants offer land and labor and the company provides the frame material, seedling wood, technology and irrigation. Besides, the enterprise subsidies to peasants 400 yuan per mu in the first years before the grape fertility and invests in 5000 yuan per mu to construct the base. In short, the land of wine grape planting base is cultivated by peasants and company, which is an innovative way to land transfer in remote rural. The chateau combined closely with the peasants by ordering contract management. Peasants plant and company provides plant standards and makes the purchase price. Thus the industry can drive the development of agriculture, increase pasants’ income and promote the path of agricultural recycle.
2.2. Data Sources and Research Methodology
This paper makes interviews and questionnaires by choosing three wine grape planting bases in 22 villages included in 8 villager committees to obtain data (Figure 1). They are Zhongyang village, Shi Jian village and Nantou village.
When designing the questionnaire survey in this paper, the method of obtaining experimental data is used and the survey object is divided into the treatment group and the control group. The standard for its judgment is whether the peasants join in the wine grape planting base or not. The treatment group has joined the bases, while the control group did not join the bases. And then investigate the income situation before and after the peasants join in the wine grape planting bases, which is the revenue in 2012 and 2015, respectively. And their income contains crops, migrant workers, family of livestock and poultry breeding, state subsidies, five parts. Besides, peasant’ informations of age, gender, education years, the number of people in a family and the willingness of participate in land transfer have been interviewed. The number of peasants on the survey totaled 52 households, including participation in 28 peasants and 24 peasants who was not participated. In consequence, this paper is to analyze sample of 104 groups of peasants surveyed. According to the different information of whether peasants joined in land transfer, this paper analyze and evaluates the related indicators of the influence of land transfer on of peasants’ income by the change of the participation in land transfer of income indicators before and after by Excel calculation. Through comparing, the influence of the only factor-land transfer on gross and structure change of peasant household income is analyzed.
3. The Research of Land Transfer Pattern in Study Areas
3.1. Rural Land Transfer Pattern of Developed Areas and Study Areas
There are many different problems and different forms about land transfer way, which contains transfer, rent, equity, swap, reorganization, merger, joint-stock etc., included in land transfer model  . At present China’s rural land transfer typical models are: large grain subcontract model, stock cooperative model and rural “land bank” model  . The typical model of operation is formed in the current land transfer implementation process are: Zhejiang rural land stock cooperative model, Chengdu rural’ confirmation of land right transfer model  . These models are mainly used in the rural economy and they are often relatively developed in coastal areas, marginal areas and medium-sized cities as well as some large-scale construction to expand the area. Economically more developed rural areas have shown a wide range of land transfer model, especially the new features of the market process of land transfer, land transfer standardization work and land transfer price rationalization  . In the remote areas, the speed of land transfer is slow and lags, particularly hollow village serious abandonment of land with few large-scale transfers.
Figure 1. The location map of study areas.
In the surveyed areas, even though most peasants are reluctant to carry out the high cost of revenue land transfer. his is because the area’s poor communication, blocking traffic, resulting in lack of awareness of the transfer of land for the peasants At the same time, they love their land seriously and they are given less educated. The most important reason is that workers in agriculture is old enough. Peasants within the survey area average years of education is 1.02 years and the highest educated year is only 11 years. However, peasants who is based on agriculture and industry is 52.7 years about average age, which leads to backwardness in remote rural peasants do not want to transfer the land. The Rongzi wine’s land transfer model―“enterprise + peasant household” realizes the peasants’ income land intensification and industrialization on the basis of full respect for the wishes and rights of peasants.
3.2. The Research of Land Transfer and Analysis of Income Change
3.2.1. The Total Change of Peasants per Capita Net Income
Table 1 showing those peasants’ income average differences during the process of land transfer about Rongzi Chateau that is to make grape wine. The result shows that peasants’ per capita net income is 4371 for participating the land transfer. However, peasants who don’t take part in the land transfer is 7304. There is a difference of up to nearly 3000 yuan, while the income of peasants who take part in the land transfer and peasants who don’t take part in it are increased to 7555 yuan and 7858 yuan, at the same time the income balance narrowed to nearly 300 yuan Compared with the participation of the former land transfer, there is a difference of 2630 yuan. From net income
Table 1. The difference of mean value of peanant’s income between inter-group and intra-group in the before and after land transfer.
of view on the basis of finishing the land transfer, income of participation peasants is more than 4508 yuan, compared with the former situation there is a difference about 4477 yuan. After land transfer workers who take part in the land transfer have few per capita net incomes, it decreased 1139. On the contrary, without participation of peasants increased by 204 yuan. Compared with the previous base land transfer, there is a difference of only 1343 yuan. This is the actual situation of the rural survey. Whether peasants take part in the land transfer or not, annual per capita net income of peasants are increased subtly, containing involving peasants annual per capita net income increased by 3184 yuan, without participation of peasants per capita net income increased by only 554 yuan.
Because the income of peasants not involved relies on mainly labor income, mostly engaged in simple labor or self-employed business sector, wage growth is limited. The peasants who are involved in wine grape cultivation land transfer mainly relies on the cultivation of grapes to realize the economic value by the way of orders and sub-contract. There is a substantial income. But the research year is 2015 especially the beginning of the investigation viticulture with low yields, and less income. With ripe grapes seedling, production will increase and revenue will also increase. The annual per capita net income of peasants are involved in the trend than not involved peasants. Therefore, “enterprises and peasants’ land transfer model adds fresh blood for the income of peasants in remote rural undeveloped areas.
A dominant different is that workers per capita net income, per capita net income of the family livestock, state subsidies per capita net income, per capita net income of the business operations have undergone negative growth, but increasing is slow. Before land transfer, peasants who have take part in it have lower income than any other peasants about these four indexes. That are 1934, 306, 6927 yuan, after land transfer, peasants’ per capita net income has increased to a degree. It increased by 204, 109, 2241 yuan. a total of 556 yuan. So per capita net income of rural households, has increased subtly although these four has decreased, but the magnitude is small. Compared to the amount of the difference there were 1343, 117, 25, 927 yuan, a total of 2412 yuan, but per capita net income of peasants who participate in land transfer is twice.
By analyzing the data in Table 1 it can be seen that after the base land transfer, the per capita net income of crop peasants who were involved in has a significant positive growth. It has a positive correlation with the base land transfer. However, workers per capita net income, per capita household livestock breeding net income, state subsidies per capita net income, and per capita net income of operating business showed a slight decline in the trend with the base land transfer negative correlation. Five kinds of comprehensive consideration of the impact on peasants’ income net income of peasants’ per capita net income showed positive growth with the positive correlation.
3.2.2. The Structural Changes of Main Source of Peasants’ Income
As a part of the per capita net income of peasants, in the 2012 crop cultivation, livestock breeding families, overseas workers, state subsidies and doing business as five parts, the proportion was 24.14%, 0.18%, 71.65%, 4.03%, 0.00%, and to adjust the proportion of the five 2015 revenue was 71.52%, 0.00%, 26.45%, 2.03%, 0.00%, as shown in Figure 2. The proportion of per capita net income of peasants who have take part in the land transfer has undergone major changes before transfer per capita net income of peasants are mainly from the cultivation of crops and work outside income. 71.65% of peasants choose to plant crops which have a significant impact for the construction of new rural areas, in order to promote the industrialization of modern agriculture. Because the cultivation of grapes requires a lot of labor, prompting a large number of migrant workers return the countryside to sign a contract with Rongzi grogshop. At the same time, it protects the income of peasants and reduces the risk of non-agricultural workers. It also breaks the single planting that rely on the weather and get through the trouble that is agricultural products is unsalable, thereby improving the quality of life of peasants and happiness index, helping the construction of new rural backwoods and realizing the well-off society.
As a part of the per capita net income of peasants not involved, in the 2012 the proportions of crop cultivation, livestock breeding families, overseas workers, state subsidies and doing business are 13.63%, 4.18%, 67.43%, 2.42%, 12.34%. However, in the 2015, it has adjusted the proportion of these five parts into 11.13%, 5.34%, 66.48%, 2.32%, 14.73%, as shown in Figure 3. The per capita net income of peasants who don’t take part in the land transfer has not changed significantly about the proportion
Figure 2. The proportion of per capita net income of peanants joined in land transfer.
Figure 3. The proportion of per capita net income of peanants not joined in land transfer.
including the contribution of migrant workers are up to 65%, but the amount of increasing is not high with the per capita net income increased by only 554 yuan. So it has a bad influence about improving extremely living standards of peasants because migrant workers have limited in knowledge and labor skill with the increasing of the age. Of course, the potential of income level growth is small.
4. Conclusions and Discussion
In remote rural areas, the land transfer development is hysteretic, because of the terrible natural conditions, the single resource and the phenomenons of knowledge poverty. “Enterprises and peasants” pattern can play the leading role of leading enterprises, making the scattered land be scale, industrialization, and can overcome the psychological obstacles of peasants are reluctant to completely out of arable land the transfer of enterprises and peasants to manage the land, making a large number of migrant workers returning home and have a relatively stable income, the survey found that peasants involved in land transfer, crop growth per capita net income was positively correlated with the land transfer, reduce the per capita income of non-agricultural workers, peasants per capita income than did not participate in the big growth, and there are more than the per capita net income of peasants did not participate in the trend, to improve the living standards of peasants, the new rural construction is of great significance.
The remote rural “enterprises and peasant” land transfer procedures are not standardized, the corresponding platform construction is not perfect and conducive to the protection of the interests of both parties. And the transfer pattern is still mainly by peasants to grow their own land, strictly just land transfer a new form, so as to realize the remote rural land transfer scale that should improve the policy orientation, platform construction, the concrete operation process, so as to standardize the land transfer.
It will take a long time and a lot of money to develop the wine cultivation industry. Although the country has nearly 500 wineries, along with the change of people’s idea, Wine broad market, but not many private enterprises really do it the wine grape planting base. So it is important for the construction of Rongzi chateau to construct wine grape planting base. The “enterprise and peasants” pattern land transfer should perfect the land cooperatives, sign the standard land transfer contract and the purchase contract and protect the rights and interests of the company and peasants when it is developed.