Back
 JEP  Vol.7 No.10 , September 2016
Biomarkers and Ultra Structural Evaluation of Marine Pollution by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Abstract: The present study is endeavored to study the oxidative stress and antioxidant response as well as the ultrastructural change of both liver and muscle tissues of Siganus rivulatus collected from polluted region (El-Mex Bay) and control region (Marsa Matrouh) to identify the significance of biomarkers. The results revealed that, El-Mex Bay was polluted by different types of chemicals including hydrocarbons comparing with the reference area (Matrouh area). Where, the concentration range of total hydrocarbons in sediment samples collected from Matrouh coast was 409.24 - 521.26 ng/g, dry weight, where as this range in sediment samples collected from El-MexBay was 4159.77 - 4589.81 ng/g, dry weight. In this context, the induction of antioxidant systems in fish collected from polluted area in response to oxidative stress should be considered as a clear indication of the presence of pollution and environmental health degradation. Also, The increase in lipid peroxidation was a useful indicator of the pollution load in the present study. The results suggest that chemical pollution is capable of inducing morphological alteration in liver offish collected from polluted area. The present study indicated that ultra-structural changes serveas biomarker of stress in aquatic environment.
Cite this paper: Moneam, N. , Maguid, N. , El-Sikaily, A. , Zaki, M. and Sheradah, M. (2016) Biomarkers and Ultra Structural Evaluation of Marine Pollution by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 1283-1304. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.710113.
References

[1]   Wahby, S.D. and Shriadach, M.A. (1984) The Effect of Sewage Discharge on Some Chemical Characteristics of Seawater. 7th Journees Etud Pollutions, Lvcerene, 11-13 October 1984, 81-90.

[2]   Emara, H.I., Shriadah, M.A., Maoustafa, T.H. and El-Deek, M.S. (1995) Trace Metals-Nutrient Salts Relationship in Coastal Seawater of Alexandria. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment, Tarragona, October 24-27 1995, 1457-1464.

[3]   Shriadah, M.A. and Emara, H.I. (1991) The Distribution of Chromium, Copper, Cadmium, and Lead in Areas of Multi-Polluting Factors of Alexandria. International Proceeding of the Sympposium of Marine Chemistry in the Arab Region, Suez, April 1991, 30-50.

[4]   Shriadah, M.A., Shobier, A.H. and Shreadah, M.A. (2013) Assessment of Arsenic and Vanadium Pollution in Surface Sediments of the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast. Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 16, 82-101.

[5]   Shriadah, M.A., Masoud, M., Khattab, A.M. and El Zokm, G. (2014) Impacts of Different Drains on the Seawater Quality of El-Mex Bay (Alexandria, Egypt). Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment, 8, 287-303.

[6]   Shriadah, M.A., Abdel Fattah, L. and Fahmy, M.A. (2015) Heavy Metals in Some Fish Species and Bivalves from the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2015.61001

[7]   Shriadah, M.A., Shobier, A.H., Abdel Ghani, S., El-Zokm, G. and Said, T.O. (2015) Major Ions Anomalies and Contamination Status by Trace Metals in Sediments from Two Hot Spots along the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4420-y

[8]   Shriadah, M.A., Masoud, M., Khattab, A.M. and El Zokm, G. (2015) Nutrient Fluxes and Sediments Composition in El Mex Bay and Surround Drains, Alexandria, Egypt. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 513-527.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajac.2015.66050

[9]   Shriadah, M.A., Said, T.O., El-Sharkawi, F.M. and Mohamed, M.A. (2016) POPs in Sediments of the Eastern and Western Coast of the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea: A Comparative Study. Development in Analytical Chemistry, 3, 1-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14355/dac.2016.03.001

[10]   Shriadah, M.A., Mohmoud, T.H., El-Deek, M.S. and Emara, H.I. (1990) Study and Interpretation of the Recent State of Pollution in the Eastern Harbor of Alexandria. 1st International Environmental Science Conference, Sabha, 27-31 January 1990.

[11]   Emara H.I. and Shriadah, M.A. (1991) Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, and Zinc in the Eastern Harbor and El-Mex Bey Waters (Alexandria). International Proceedings of the Symposium of Marine Chemistry in the Arab Region, Suez, April 1991, 97-112.

[12]   Shriadah, M.A. (1992) Trace Elements Concentration in Fish Samples from Alexandria Region. Bulletin High Institute of Public Health, 22, 437-444.

[13]   Shriadah, M.A. and Emara, H.I. (1996) Heavy Metals (Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Cadmium, and Lead) in the Sediments from the Eastern Harbor and El-Mex Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. Proceedings of 6th International Symposium: Environmental Protection Is a Must, Alexandria, 21-23 May 1996, 916-927.

[14]   Abdel Fatah, L.M., Fahmy, M.A. and Shriadah, M.A. (2003) Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Hg in the Egyptian Coastal Sediments along the Mediterranean Sea. Association for Modeling and Simulation in Enterprises, 64, 55-69.

[15]   Shakweer, L., Shriadah M.A., Fahmy, M.A. and Abdel Fattah, L. (2006) Distributions and Concentrations of Trace Elements along the Mediterranean Coastal Water of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 32, 95-127.

[16]   Abdel Ghani, S.A., Shobier, A.H., Said, T.O. and Shreadah, M.A. (2010) Organotin Compounds in Egyptian Mediterranean Sediments. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 36, 221-229.

[17]   Shreadah, M.A., Said, T.O., Abdel Moniem, M.I., Fathallah, E.M.I. and Mahmoud, M.E. (2011) PAHsin Sediments along the Semi-Closed Areas of Alexandria, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2, 700-709.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2011.26081

[18]   Shobier, A.H., Abdel Ghani, S.A. and Shreadah, M.A. (2011) Distribution of Total Mercury in Sediments of Four Semi-Enclosed Basins along the Mediterranean Coast of Alexandria. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 37, 1-11.

[19]   Leung, H.M., Leung, A.O.W., Wang, H.S., Maa, K., Liang, Y., Ho, K.C., Cheung, K., Tohidi, F. and Yung, K.K.L. (2014) Assessment of Heavy Metals/Metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) Concentrations in Edible Fish Species Tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 78, 235-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.10.028

[20]   Shriadah, M.A. (1999) Oil Contamination along Oil Tanker Routes off the United Arab Emirates (The Arabian Gulf and The Gulf of Oman). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 63, 203-210.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001289900967

[21]   Shriadah, M.A. (1999) Petroleum Hydrocarbons along the Arabian Gulf Coast of the United Arab Emirates. Indian Journal of Marine Science, 28, 10-16.

[22]   Shriadah, M.A. (2000) Levels and Distributions of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Coastal Waters and Sediments of the United Arab Emirates in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 119, 247-256.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005192523876

[23]   Shriadah, M.A. (2000) Contamination by Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Two Semi-Enclosed Areas along the Arabian Gulf Coast of the United Arab Emirates. OEbalia, 26, 49-62.

[24]   Shriadah, M.A. (2001) Petroleum Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Arabian Gulf Fish Tissues. Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67, 560-567.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001280160

[25]   El Deeb, M.K., Said, T.O., El Naggar, M.H. and Shriadah, M.A. (2007) An Assessment of Pollution Status of Abu Qir Bay with Polycycic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Their Possible Origins. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment, Alexandria, 13-17 November 2007, 895-906.

[26]   Shriadah, M.A., Said, T.O., Othman, I.M., Fathallah, E.M.I. and Mahmoud, M.E. (2012) Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Sediments along the Semi-Closed Areas of Alexandria, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 3, 141-149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.32018

[27]   Shriadah, M.A., Said, T.O., Othman, I.M., Fathallah, E.M.I. and Mahmoud, M.E. (2014) Organochlorinesin Seawater from Egyptian Mediterranean Coast of Alexandria. Development in Analytical Chemistry, 1, 19-24.

[28]   Alvarez, M.C., Franco, A., Perez-Dominguez, R. and Elliott, M. (2013) Sensitivity Analysis to Explore Responsiveness and Dynamic Range of Multi-Metric Fish-Based Indices for Assessing the Ecological Status of Estuaries and Lagoons. Hydrobiologia, 704, 347-362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-012-1314-7

[29]   Duke, O.F. (2008) Source Determination of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediment of a Creek in the Niger Delta Region. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 282-285.

[30]   Cheng, Z., Man, Y.B., Nie, X.P. and Wong, M.H. (2013) Trophic Relationships and Health risk Assessments of Trace Metals in the Aquaculture Pond Ecosystem of Pearl River Delta, China. Chemosphere, 90, 2142-2148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.11.017

[31]   Sarkar, A., Ray, D., Shrivastava, A. and Sarker, S. (2006) Molecular Biomarkers: Their Significance and Application in Marine Pollution Monitoring. Ecotoxicology, 15, 333-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-006-0069-1

[32]   Mohamed, B., Bouraoui, Z., Ghedira, J., Clearandeau, C., Jebali, J. and Boussetta, H. (2009) Seasonal Variation of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Clams Ruditapes decussates Sampled from Tunisian Coastal Areas. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 155, 119-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0422-3

[33]   Luchmann, K., Toledo-Silva, G., Bainy, A. and Marques, M. (2007) Glutathione S-Transferase Cytosolic Isoform in the Pink-Shrimp, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, from Conceicao Lagoon, Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil. Environmental International, 33, 546-549.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2006.11.005

[34]   Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J. (1999) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[35]   Stephensen, E., Sturve, J. and Forlin, L. (2002) Effects of Redox Cycling Compounds on Glutathione Content and Activity of Glutathione-Related Enzymes in Rainbow Trout Liver. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C, 133, 435-442.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1532-0456(02)00129-1

[36]   Dusmant, M., Karmabeer, J., Navnath, M. and Tanaji, G. (2010) Assessment of Oxidative Stress Indices in a Marine Macro Brown Alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from Comparable Polluted Coastal Regions of the Arabian Sea. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22, 1413-1418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(09)60268-0

[37]   Fahmy, M.A., Tayel, F.R. and Shriadah, M.A. (1995) Effect of Pollution on the Water Quality of Mex Bay and Dekhaila Harbor of Alexandria. 1st International Conference on Present and Future Technology of Navigation and Marine Science of Mediterranean and the Red Sea, Alexandria, 29-31 October 1995.

[38]   Shriadah, M.A. and Emara, H.I. (1992) Major Cations and Alkalinity in the Eastern Harbor and El-Mex Bey. Bulletin Faculty of Science, 32, 156-174.

[39]   Shriadah, M.A. and Emara, H.I. (1992) Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Lead, and Cadmium in Fish and Crustacea from the Eastern Harbor and El-Mex Bay of Alexandria. Bulletin of High Institute of Public Health, 22, 515-525.

[40]   Shriadah, M.A., Emara, H.I., Maoustafa, T.H. and El-Deek, M.S. (1992) Effects of Sewage and Industrial Wastes on the Chemical Characteristics of the Eastern harbor and El-Max Bay Waters of Alexandria, Egypt. Science of the Total Environment, 112, 773-784.

[41]   Said, M.A., El-Deek, M.S., Mamoud, T.H. and Shriadah, M.A. (1994) Effect of Pollution on the Hydrochemical Characteristics of Different Water Types in El-Mex Bay Area West of Alexandria, Egypt. Acta Adriatica, 34, 9-19.

[42]   Tayel, F.R., Fahmy, M.A. and Shriadah, M.A. (1996) Studies on the Physic Chemical Characteristics of Mex Bay and New Dekhaila Harbor Waters of Alexandria, Egypt. Bulletin National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries, 22, 1-18.

[43]   Shriadah, M.A., Said, T.O., Younis, A.M. and Farag, R.S. (2006) Physico-Chemical Characteristics of the Semi-Closed Areas along the Mediterranean Coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 32, 38-48.

[44]   Shriadah, M.A., Said, T.O., Younis, A.M. and Farag, R.S. (2006) Speciation of Organotin Compounds in Sediments of Semi-Closed Areas along the Mediterranean Coast of Alexandria. Chemistry and Ecology, 22, 395-404.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02757540600917443

[45]   Fathy, S.A., Abdel Hamid, F.F., Shreadah, M.A., Mohamed, L.A. and El-Gazar, M.G. (2012) Effect of Some Environmental Pollutants on Enzymatic and Total Antioxidant Activities in Tilapia Niloticus. Blue Biotechnology Journal (BBJ), 1, 433-443.

[46]   Fathy, S.A., Abdel Hamid, F.F., Shreadah, M.A., Mohamed, L.A. and El-Gazar, M.G. (2012) Application of Principal Component Analysis for Developing Water Quality Index for Selected Coastal Areas of Alexandria Egypt. Recourses and Environment Journal, 2, 297-305.

[47]   Sukumaran, P. and Das, A. (2004) Distribution and Abundance of Rotifers in Relation to Water Quality of Some Tropical Reservoirs. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 51, 295-301.

[48]   Jangaard, P., Brockerhoff, H., Burgher, R. and Hoyle, R. (1967) Seasonal Changes in General Condition and Lipid Content of Cod from Inshore Waters. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 24, 607-612.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f67-052

[49]   UNEP/IOC/IAEA (1991) Sampling of Selected Marine Organisms and Sample Preparation for the Analysis of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. Reference Methods of Marine Pollution Studies No. 12, Revision 2, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, 17.

[50]   Habig, W.H., Pabst, M.J. and Jokoby, W.B. (1974) Glutathione 5-Transferases. The First Enzymatic Step in Mercapturic Acid Formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249, 7130-7139.

[51]   Beutler, E., Duron, O. and Kelly, B.M. (1963) Improved Method for the Determination of Blood Glutathione. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 61, 882-888.

[52]   Buege, J. and Aust, S. (1978) Microsomal Lipid Peroxidation. Methods Enzymology, 52, 302-310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(78)52032-6

[53]   Reynolds, E. (1963) The Use of Lead Citrate at High pH as an Electron-Opaque Stain in Electron Microscopy. Journal of Cell Biology, 17, 208-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.17.1.208

[54]   Kim, G.B., Maruya, K.A., Lee, R.F., Lee, J.H., Koh, C.H. and Tanabe, S. (1999) Distribution and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Kyeonggi Bay, Korea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38, 7-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(99)80006-X

[55]   Witt, G. (1995) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediment of the Baltic Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31, 237-248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(95)00174-L

[56]   Yang, G.P. (2000) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Sediments of the South China Sea. Environmental Pollution, 108, 163-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00245-6

[57]   Simpson, C.D., Mosi, A.A., Cullen, W.R. and Reimer, K.J. (1998) Composition and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination in Surficial Marine Sediment from Kitimat Harbor Canada. Science of the Total Environment, 181, 265-278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)05026-4

[58]   Salgueiro, L., Carballo, E., Falcón, M. and Gándara, J. (2009) Survey of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Canned Bivalves and Investigation of Their Potential Sources. Food Research International, 42, 983-988.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.04.003

[59]   Sicre, M.A., Marty, J.C., Saliot, A., Aparicio, A., Grimalt, J. and Al-Baiges, J. (1987) Aliphatic and Aromatic in Different Sized Aerosols over the Mediterranean Sea: Occurrence and Origin. Atmospheric Environment, 21, 2247-2259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(87)90356-8

[60]   Soclo, H.H., Garrigues, P.H. and Ewald, M. (2000) Origin of Polycycilic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Coastal Marine Sediments: Case Studies in Cotonou (Benin) and Aquitaine (France) Areas. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 387-396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00200-3

[61]   El Sikaily, A., Khaled, A., El Nemr, A., Said, T.O. and Abd-Allah, A.M.A. (2002) Determination of Hydrocarbons in Bivalves from the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast. Medcinal Marine Science, 312, 123-131.

[62]   Nakata, H., Sakai, Y., Miyawaki, T. and Takemura, A. (2003) Bioaccumulation and Toxic Potencies of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tidal Flat and Coastal Ecosystems of the Ariake Sea, Japan. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 3513-3521.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es021083h

[63]   Troisi, G., Bexton, S. and Robinson, I. (2006) Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon and PAH Metabolite Burdens in Oiled Common Guillemots (Uriaaalgae) Stranded on the East Coast of England (2001-2002). Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 7938-7943.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0601787

[64]   Hylland, K., Tollefsen, K.E., Ruus, A., Jonsson, G., Sundt, R.C., Sanni, S., Utvik, T.I., Jangaard, P., Brockerhoff, H., Burgher, R. and Hoyle, R. (1967) Seasonal Changes in General Condition and Lipid Content of Cod from Inshore Waters. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 24, 607-612.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f67-052

[65]   Ahmad, I., Pacheco, M. and Santos, M. (2006) Oxidative Stress Biomarkers: An in Situ Study of Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem (Pateira de Fermentelos, Portugal). Chemosphere, 65, 952-962.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.042

[66]   Akcha, F., Izuel, C., Venier, P., Budzinski, H., Burgeot, T. and Narbonne, J.F. (2000) Enzymatic Biomarker Measurement and Study of DNA Adduct Formation in Benzo[a] Pyrene Contaminated Mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Aquatic Toxicology, 49, 269-287.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-445X(99)00082-X

[67]   Regoli, F., Gorbi, S., Frenzilli, G., Nigro, M., CorsiI, I., Focardi, S. and Winston, G.W. (2002) Oxidative Stress in Ecotoxicology: From the Analysis of Individual Antioxidants to a More Integrated Approach. Marine Environmental Research, 54, 419-423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(02)00146-0

[68]   Solé, M., Buet, A., Ortiz, L., Maynou, F., Bayona, J.M. and Albaigés, J. (2007) Biochemical Responses in Mussels Exposed to the Water-Accommodated Fraction of the “Prestige” Fuel Oil. Scientia Marina, 71, 373-382.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2007.71n2373

[69]   Güll, S., Belge-Kurutas, E., Yildiz, E., Sahan, A. and Doran, F., (2004). “Pollution Correlated Modifications of Liver Antioxidant System and Histopathology of Fish (Cyprinidae) Living in Seyhan Dam Lake, Turkey. Environmental International, 30, 605-609.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00059-X

[70]   Zhen, Y. and Aili, J. (2011) Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Responses and Neurotoxicity Potential of Methamidophos in Mytilus edulis. Advanced Materials Research, 343-344, 795-801.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.343-344.795

[71]   Kurutas, E.B., Sahan, A. and Altun, T. (2009) Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Liver and Gill Tissues of Spotted Barb (Capoeta barroisi Lortet, 1894) Living in Theriver Ceyhan, Adana, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Biology, 33, 275-282.

[72]   Lesser, M.P. (2010) Survivorship, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage of Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) Embryos and Larvae Exposed to Ultraviole Tradiation (290-400 nm) in the Gulf of Maine. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 86, 382-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2009.00671.x

[73]   Shahbudin, S., Deny, S., Zakirun, A.M., Haziyamin, T.A., Akbar John, B. and Taher, M. (2011) Antioxidant Properties of Soft Coral Dendronephthya sp. International Journal of Pharmacology, 7, 263-267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2011.263.267

[74]   Ahmad, I., Pacheco, M. and Santos, M.A. (2004) Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants as an Adaptation to Phagocyte-Induced Damage in Anguilla Anguilla L. Following in Situ Harbor Water Exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 57, 290-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0147-6513(03)00080-0

[75]   Santos, M.A., Pacheco, M. and Ahmad, I. (2004) Anguilla Anguilla L. Antioxidants Responses to in Situ Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent Outlet Exposure. Environmental International, 30, 301-308.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00178-8

[76]   Ahmad, I., Oliveira, M., Pacheco, M.M, and Santos, M.A. (2005) Anguilla Anguilla L. Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Responses to Copper Exposure with or without β-naphthoflavone Pre-Exposure. Chemosphere, 61, 267-275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.01.069

[77]   Havelkova, M., Blahova, J., Kroupova, H., Randak, T., Leontovycova, I., Grabic, R., Pospisil, R. and Svobodova, Z. (2008) Biomarkers of Contaminant Exposure in Chub (Leuciscuscephalus L.)—Biomonitoring of Major Rivers in the Czech Republic. Sensors, 8, 2589-2603.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s8042589

[78]   Siroka, Z., Krijt, J., Randak, T., Svobodova, Z., Peskova, G., Fuksa, J., Hajslova, J., Jarkovsky, J. and Janska, M. (2005) Organic Pollutant Contamination of the River Elbe as Assessed by Biochemical Markers. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 74, 293-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2754/avb200574020293

[79]   Rathod, V. and Balkrishna, P.A. (2011) Lipid Peroxide, Glutathione and Glutathione-Dependent Enzyme (GST) in Mixed Zooplankton from the North-West Coast of India: Implication for the Use of Environmental Monitoring. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 7862-7867.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB10.1909

[80]   Havelková, M., Randák, T., Blahová, J. and Slatinská, I. (2010) Biochemical Markers for the Assessment of Aquatic Environment Contamination. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 1, 169-181.

[81]   Pandey, S., Parvez, S., Sayeed, I., Haque, R., Bin-Hafeez, B. and Raisuddin, S. (2003) Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress: A Comparative Study of River Yamuna Fish Wallago attu (Bl. & Schn.). Science of the Total Environment, 309, 105-115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00006-8

[82]   Farombi, E., Adelowo, O. and Ajimoko, Y. (2007) Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River. International Journal Environmental Research Public Health, 4, 158-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2007040011

[83]   Mohamed, F.A. (2001) Impacts of Environmental Pollution in the Southern Region of Lake Manzalah, Egypt, on the Histological Structures of the Liver and Intestine of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii. Journal of Egyptian Academy Society for Environmental Development, 2, 25-42.

[84]   Ptashynski, M., Pedlar, R., Evan, R., Baron, C. and Klaver, J. (2002) Toxicology of Dietary Nickel in Lake White Fish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Aquatic Toxicology, 58, 229-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-445X(01)00239-9

[85]   Tripathi, C.L. and Shukla, S.P. (1990) Enzymatic and Ultrastructural Studies in a Freshwater Catfish: Impact of Methyl Parathion. Biomedical Environmental Science, 3, 166-182.

 
 
Top