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 APE  Vol.6 No.4 , November 2016
The Personal Sense of Efficacy as an Indicator of Efficiency of Student Teaching of Physical Education and Sports
Abstract: The objective of this study is to look for the effect of student teaching on the personal sense of efficacy of the intern of sports and physical education teacher. For calculating this effect, it has used the French version of the questionnaire by Perrault (2008) for trainee teachers and semi maintenance policy for educational advisers. Our sample consists of 402 trainee teachers and 10 counsellors of higher Institute of sport and physical education of Sfax. The results show that student teaching of sports and physical education increases the feeling of self efficacy in the trainee contrary to the opinion of counsel that shows as the student teaching is not significant effect. We can explain our result by Hoy Woolfolk notice, (1990); Gorrell & Hwang (1995); Mulholland, Dorman, & Odgers (2004), which show that the beliefs of efficiency increase among future teachers during curriculum but there are other research that shows such as Plourde studies (2002), which shows that there is no effect of practice teaching on the beliefs of the effectiveness of future teachers and they attribute this result downward and the realization of the difficulties in teaching.

1. Introduction

The personal sense of efficacy is an important index to assess the pedagogical teaching course. Romano (1996) to “consider a sense of personal effectiveness as an indicator of the effectiveness of a training”. The first researcher who applied the theory of self- efficacy is Albert Bandura (1977) . It shows an important role of self-efficacy beliefs in the majority of acts of human beings. Research in educational psychology still attached great importance to the concept of self-efficacy of the teacher (teacher efficacy). (Gaudreau et al. 2012) . Tschannen-Moran et al. (1998) noted the hundreds of books or articles on the subject. Armor et al. (1976) and Berman et al. (1977) are the first researchers who apply the theory of efficacy by Bandura (1977) teachers. In this regard, several studies show that personal sense of efficacy increases positively during an educational internship (Housego, 1992; Hoy et al. 2005) . Other studies have highlighted “correlations between efficacy and skills and suggest that the confidence of an indi- vidual to carry out a task may be induced as a result of training” (Perrault, 2010: p. 2) . All this leads us to look at the evaluation of the educational course through the sense of self efficiency or the sense of personal efficacy. Despite the importance of student teaching in the training of teachers of physical education and sport, which is the fruit of 3 years of academic training, it has not yet assessed the influence of this internship on the sense of teacher competence and in particular skills needed for education. The objective of our research is to use the sense of self efficiency as an indicator to evaluate the efficiency of the teaching course of EPS. All this leads us to ask these questions: the teaching course of physical and sports education improves it the personal sense of efficacy among trainee teachers?

1.1. Personal Sense of Efficiency on the Teacher

Several studies that show the beneficial effect of sense of self efficiency on the behavior of the teacher. These studies have shown that more mathematics teachers who have a strong SAE, “More they are best in their presentations lesson”, “More they are best in their class management”, “More they are best in their questions to the students”, (Saklofske et al., 1988), “More they have occupational humanistic beliefs” (Enochs et al., 1995) . Romano (1996) to consider a sense of personal effectiveness as an indicator of the effectiveness of training. Piccoli et al. (2001) demonstrates also that it is important to estimate also the perceptions of learners in their own capacities, within the framework of the evaluation of the effectiveness of a training. From these findings, there is that sense of self efficiency is a good indicator to assess the quality of training. The quality of training is measured from the necessary skills for education (Perrault 2010) . The notion of competence lies in several areas such as psychology, sociology and even the science of education, especially physical education. Perrenoud (2013) defines competence as the “ability to mobilize various cognitive resources to cope with a type of situations”. Also, Jonnaert (2002) defines the concept of jurisdiction as a set of resources that an individual uses in a situation to achieve an action. According to Henri Boudreault (2002) a skill is a mobilizable knowledge (knowledge, know-how, skills) to resolve a problem situation. According to Boudreault (2002) , the jurisdiction is the synergistic knowledge articulation, attitudes and skills (know-how).

1.2. The Student Teaching of EPS

In fact, the course represents “an opportunity to live a significant relationship with a mentor that can serve as a model, guide, comment on situations and interventions” (Gervais, 1999) . The course teaching of eps is deroulelent in different school hotel of the city of Sfax during a school year due to a single meeting by a week during the entire school year. The behavior of the trainee teacher occupies a very important place for the success of the educational course of EPS. According to Jain (2004), the educational course “it’s live event in which it comes to proceed by identity shifts which are closely related to the redefinition of its role and the reconsideration of the knowledge to teach (Jain, 2004). Shkedi et al. (2004) , the pedagogical internship represents an opportunity for trainee teachers to confront the “real world of education” (Shkedi & Laron, 2004) and facilitating the integration into the profession (Bullough et al., 2003) . All trainee teacher has rights and duties that it must comply with in his teaching. In addition, it must have the documentation and the necessary equipment to perform its task. The trainee teacher of EPS has several rights, among which: have a school or is going on the course with his own choice by order of merit, having supervision on the part of a coach of a school teacher, received educational instructions necessary to the student in each session, have a degree of autonomy in his teaching and intervene only in emergencies, have an evaluation objective away from discrimination by sex (the region…), help to integrate into the school and fit into the educational team and have the information necessary to ensure the smooth running of the stage in a better condition. The trainee teacher has duties that it must abide by them. At the level of his teaching, the trainee teacher should: avoid any sort of moral or physical violence towards the student. In case of problems, it must use the framer teacher to find a solution, respecting the rules of the school, take into account the number of weeks of work, the days holidays and weeks blocked, come in presentable sportswear and avoid all the stuff that can cause students: cutting horses, girls makeup…). It is prohibited the trainee teachers taught in absence of the framer teacher who is the first head of the internship. In addition the trainee teacher must have a course to teach it in the class or locker room in case of bad weather, being relatively objective, clear and credible in assessing and avoiding any kind of discrimination (by sex, region, race…), apply the official instructions, refer to the content of the EPS programs, take into account specificities of the establishment and its cyclic distribution Establish its own cyclical programming from the information collected during the competition no. 1 (diagnostic assessment) and possibly meet the pedagogical innovations. In addition to these rights, the trainee teacher must maintain documentation and the necessary equipment to teach.

2. Methodology

The measure used in this study tool is the personal self-efficacy questionnaire for teachers CFC and semi maintenance policy for educational advisers.

2.1. The Questionnaire

The questionnaire used is the personal sense of effectiveness of Perrault (2010) . This tool addresses issues relating to the acquisition of the skills necessary for teaching. This questionnaire is composed of 10 dimensions, represents 10 skills, and each jurisdiction has statements according to Table 1.

The questionnaire items are ordered in the questionnaire under the following order (Table 2).

According to the methodology of Gérard (2003) for the assessment of the efficiency of student teaching, this methodology is to estimate the level of satisfaction a l4 aide on a scale of 8 choice, for each of the 10 competencies ranging from “not at all effective” to “very effective”. The sense of self-efficacy questionnaire is made up of 33 items (see annexes). Prior to the distribution of questionnaire? It was a test on a sample reduced

Table 1. Classification of competences.

Table 2. Order of the items in the scale.

to ensure proper understanding of questionnaire. It took into account the comments of teachers and subsequently, we changed a few expressions of some questions so that they correspond to the direction of our research, including the specificity of teaching physical education course.

2.1.1. Data Collection

The distribution of the questionnaires will be held during the month of May, 2014 and may 2015 at the higher Institute of sport and physical education of Sfax to the student’s graduating class (3rd year fundamental licence in physical education). This question- naire is distributed just before discontinuation of courses in free time. We took care to explain some points to help respondents to choose the answer that suits them.

2.1.2. Study Population

Each student in 3rd year Bachelor EPS must perform a teaching internship of teaching of EPS in a primary school, a preparatory school or in a school of a session per week (Tuesdays and Thursdays) during the entire school year (Table 3).

Our population is composed of. Our sample consists of 402 trainee teachers of the higher Institute of sport and physical education of Sfax who participated voluntarily in this study after an eight month internship in different schools of the city of Sfax (Figure 1).

2.1.3. Statistics Data Analysis

For processing the response, statistical analysis is performed on a PC using the software “excel”.

Hainaut (1975) when uniformity is less than a 15%, that is, the population is homogeneous. While when uniformity is greater was 30%, that is, the population is heterogeneous. According to Gerard (2003) , told that it is a learning effect the when the average relative gain exceeds 40%.

Table 3. Distribution of hourly volume of student teaching (Guemri et al. 2016).

Figure 1. Distribution of population by sex.

2.2. Maintenance

Maintenance used in this research is the semi maintenance policy. The latter represents a blend between the closed maintenance and the open. Our maintenance consists of 10 questions revolves around the 10 skills for teaching. which are respectively: official State and how ethical and responsible act, mastering the French to teach communication, mastering disciplines and have a good general culture, design and implement his teaching and organising the work of the class, taking account of the diversity of students, student assessment, master the technologies of information and communications work as a team and cooperate with parents and school partners develop and innovate.

2.2.1. Maintenance Guide

According to Guittet (2008) the interview guide necessarily contains the following steps:

Come forward and give an idea about the framework and objectives of maintenance,

-Fix an appointment for servicing;

-Have permission for audio recording (voice);

-Give an idea on the number of questions;

-Estimate the duration of the maintenance.

2.2.2. Content Analysis

In our study, we used the content analysis method to analyze the result. This method is inspired by Philippe Wanlin (2007) which is to do a reading of the interview responses and classifying it according to specific themes.

3. Results

3.1. The Effect of Learning on the Personal Sense of Efficiency of the EPS Trainee Teacher

According the results (Table 4) yet, we note that there is a positive learning effect

Table 4. Learning effect on the sense of self efficiency of trainee teacher of EPS.

(average relative gain) on the sense of self efficiency with a relative gain of GRM = 41.43% (above 40%). This indicates that trainee teachers of EPS believe have actually improved during the teaching course of EPS.

3.2. Results of Maintenance on Feeling of Skills

Table 5 shows the presence of 4 skills that have progressed positively during student, teaching which are respectively: jurisdiction 1: acting as a civil servant of the State and the guardian of ethics (88.87%), skill 2: the mastery of the French language to teach and communicate (75.76%), competence 5: designing and implementing his own and communication technologies (42.32%); and 6 skills that are decreased negatively during student teaching which are respectively: jurisdiction 3: the mastery of disciplines received 􀀀received in his/education in general (66.67%), skill 4: designing and implementing his own teaching 􀀀plans (57.69%), jurisdiction 6: taking into account the diversity of the students (51.61%), jurisdiction 7: evaluating students (81.58%), jurisdiction 9: working as a team and cooperating with parents and school peers (47.62%) and Competence 10: forming and innovating (51.72%). So according to the Advisor, trainee teachers have acquired no more than 40% skills and subsequently the educational course of EPS does not a good command of this 60% competency.

4. Discussion

According to the results yet, we note that trainee teachers of EPS estimate have actually improved during the teaching course of EPS regards the personal sense of efficacy. Our result corroborate with several studies: Hoy Woolfolk (1990); Gorrell & Hwang (1995) ; Mulholland, Dorman, & Odgers (2004) show that the beliefs of efficiency increase among future teachers during curriculum or teaching internship and assign the results to the experience of the master during the student teaching in teachers who is among the sources of sense of self efficiency. “As well as other factors such as observation and

Table 5. Results of maintenance on feeling of skills.

social learning (application experiences) and the encouragement of teachers framer” (Ramey-Gassert Shroyer, 1992; Scharmann Hampton, 1995; Huinker Madison, 1997). However, the differences in these studies may be related to how effectiveness was measured (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2002), the important phase of the effect of socialization (Hoy Woolfolk, 1990) and fluctuating experiences in training of teachers (Ginns et al., 1995; Ashton Webb, 1986 ). It can be concluded that it is important to determine the beliefs of self-efficacy of teachers prior to use because it is difficult to change beliefs once the personal sense of efficacy are trained (Yalcin, 2011) . But our result is not consistent with several studies:

Yylmaz and Cavaþ (2007) “have studied the effect of the practice of the teaching of teachers’ interns on the beliefs of the effectiveness of two different universities in Izmir, Turkey”. “They have concluded that teaching practice experience has no effect on future teachers in primary education on the beliefs of scientific effectiveness. (Plourde, 2002) showed that teaching practice has no effect of practice of teaching on the beliefs of the effectiveness of future teachers and they attribute this result downward and the realization of the difficulties in teaching. Schoeneberger et al. (1986) ; Enochs & Riggs, (1990) , Riggs (1991) , Mulholland (2000) , Appleton (2003) , Mulholland (2004) show that teacher trainees do not have the confidence to teach and it decreases their personal effectiveness in primary and secondary education. Gencer et al. (2007) ; Ginns (1999) found that the practical training in teaching was not an important factor in the personal sense of efficacy. It is concluded that our research opens many perspectives: first, increase the hourly volume of student teaching at two levels: at the level of the number of outputs (2 outputs per week instead of one output) and at the level of the number of semesters (3 semesters of course instead of 2 semesters), to ensure a large number of repetition as a saying by forging, it becomes will forge, then, to reduce the number of students by teachers to improve the quality of coaching which allows to better detect failures in different skills and subsequently to improve teaching skills, then to involve teachers coaches in evaluation of educational internships as a partner in the supervision. Then, establishing criteria well determined in the choice of framers and pedagogical advisors to be able to properly frame the trainee teacher: e.g. introduction of a (certificate of further study) CEC or professional master’s degree in educational Advisor at the ISSEPS breasts. Again, designing a repository of jurisdiction for the Tunisian population taking into account the realities of education in general and the specificity of physical education as a subject. Finally, paving the way for further research to find methods necessary to improve the different types of skills necessary for the teaching of physical education.

Annexes

Scale of measure of efficacy of trainee teachers (Perrault, 2010) translated by Guemri et al. (2016).

Institution: .......................................................

Maintenance for the Pedagogical Advisor

Question 1: act on official State and an ethical and responsible way

………………………………………………………………………………………………Question 2: master the French language to teach and communicate

………………………………………………………………………………………………Question 3: master the disciplines and have a good general culture

………………………………………………………………………………………………Question 4: design and implement his teaching

………………………………………………………………………………………………Question 5: organising the work of the class

………………………………………………………………………………………………Question 6: take into account the diversity of the students

………………………………………………………………………………………………Question 7: assess students

………………………………………………………………………………………………Question 8: master the technologies of information and communication

………………………………………………………………………………………………Question 9: work as a team and cooperate with parents and partners of school

………………………………………………………………………………………………Question 10:develop and innovate

……………………………………………………………………………………………….Suggestions:

………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Cite this paper: Guemri, A. , Kacem, N. , Naffeti, C. and Bahloul, M. (2016) The Personal Sense of Efficacy as an Indicator of Efficiency of Student Teaching of Physical Education and Sports. Advances in Physical Education, 6, 269-282. doi: 10.4236/ape.2016.64028.
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