JDM  Vol.1 No.3 , August 2011
Muscle and adipose tissue biopsy in older adults with type 2 diabetes
Abstract: We describe a method for obtaining skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue in a single percutaneous needle biopsy procedure. Biopsies were performed in a double-blind randomized, sham-exercise controlled clinical trial of power training in 103 older adults with type 2 diabetes. In total 110 biopsies (73.3%) were performed in the first 50 participants at 3 time points. Muscle samples were obtained in 102/110 biopsies (92.7%); adipose samples were obtained in 72/110 biopsies (65.5%); both tissue types were obtained in 65/110 biopsies (59.1%). The average weight of muscle samples was 131±92 mg and the median weight of adipose samples was 51 mg (range 3 to 412 mg). No adverse effects of biopsies were reported other than mild transient pain or light-headedness. This is one of the first reports of both adipose and muscle tissue obtained during the same biopsy, and the first to describe in detail sampling technique, yield and safety.
Cite this paper: nullWang, Y. , Simar, D. , Anderberg, K. , Mavros, Y. , Kay, S. , Zhao, R. , Baune, B. , O’Sullivan, A. , Singh, N. and Singh, M. (2011) Muscle and adipose tissue biopsy in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 1, 27-35. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2011.13005.

[1]   Lowell, B.B. and Shulman, G.I. (2005) Mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. Science, 307, 384-387. doi:10.1126/science.1104343

[2]   Meigs, J.B. (2002) Epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome. American Journal of Managed Care, 8, S283-S292.

[3]   Raz, I., Eldor, R., Cernea, S., Shafrir, E. (2005) Diabetes: Insulin resistance and derangements in lipid metabolism. Cure through intervention in fat transport and storage. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 21, 3-14. doi:10.1002/dmrr.493

[4]   Rassman, J. and Gupta, S. (2005) The metabolic syndrome: Modify root causes, treat risk factors. JAAPA, 18, 30-36.

[5]   Simpson, K.A. and Singh, M.A. (2008) Effects of exercise on adiponectin: A systematic review. Obesity, 16, 241-256. hdoi:10.1038/oby.2007.53

[6]   Hamdy, O., Porramatikul, S. and Al-Ozairi, E. (2006) Metabolic obesity: The paradox between visceral and subcutaneous fat. Current Diabetes Reviews, 2, 367-373.

[7]   Ishikawa, K., Takahashi, K., Bujo H., et al. (2004) Regulating subcutaneous fat accumulation alters insulin sensitivity. Diabetes, 53, A408.

[8]   Ishikawa, K., Takahashi, K., Bujo, H., Hashimoto, N., Yagui, K. and Saito, Y. (2006) Subcutaneous fat modulates insulin sensitivity in mice by regulating TNF-alpha expression in visceral fat. Hormone Metabolism Researches, 38, 631-638. hdoi:10.1055/s-2006-954580

[9]   Giugliano, G., Nicoletti, G., Grella, E., et al. (2004) Effect of liposuction on insulin resistance and vascular inflammatory markers in obese women. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 57, 190-194. hdoi:10.1016/j.bjps.2003.12.010

[10]   González-Ortiz, M., Robles-Cervantes, J.A., Cárdenas-Camarena, L., Bustos-Salda?a, R. and Martínez-Abundis, E. (2002) The effects of surgically removing subcutaneous fat on the metabolic profile and insulin sensitivity in obese women after large-volume liposuction treatment. Hormone Metabolism Researches, 34, 446-449. doi:10.1055/s-2002-33603

[11]   Ybarra, J., Blanco-Vaca F., Fernández, S., et al. (2008) The effects if liposuction removal of subcutaneous abdominal fat on lipid metabolism are independent of insulin sensitivity in normal-overweight individuals. Obesity Surgery, 18, 408-414. doi:10.1007/s11695-007-9261-5

[12]   Robles-Cervantes, J.A., Martínez-Abundis, E., González-Ortiz, M., Cárdenas-Camarena, L., Hernández-Salazar, E. and Olvera-Ozuna, R. (2007) Behavior of insulin sensitivity and its relation to leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese women undergoing liposuction: 6-month follow-up. Obesity Surgery, 17, 1242-1247. doi:10.1007/s11695-007-9213-0

[13]   Kay, S.J. and Fiatarone Singh, M.A. (2006) The influence of physical activity in abdominal fat: A systematic review of the literature. Obesity Reviews, 7, 183-200. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00250.x

[14]   Wang, Y., Simar, D. and Fiatarone Singh, M.A. (2009) Adaptations to exercise training within skeletal muscle in adults with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance: A systematic review. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 25, 13-40. doi:10.1002/dmrr.928

[15]   Plomgaard, P., Nielsen, A.R., Fischer, C.P, et al. (2007) Associations between insulin resistance and TNF-α in plasma, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in humans with and without type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 50, 2562-2571. doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0834-6

[16]   Evans, W.J., Phinney, S.D. and Young, V.R. (1982) Suction applied to a muscle biopsy maximizes sample size. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 14, 101-102.

[17]   Bergstrom, J. (1962) Muscle electrolytes in man. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation, 14, 511-513.

[18]   Castaneda, C., Layne, J.E., Munoz-Orians, L., et al. (2002) A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25, 2335-2341. doi:10.2337/diacare.25.12.2335

[19]   Goodpaster, B.H., Thaete, F.L. and Kelley, D.E. (2000) Thigh adipose tissue distribution is associated with insulin resistance in obesity and in type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 885-892.