ABSTRACT Objective: To observe the concentration of se-rum homocysteine in intellectuals and the re-lated influential factors. Methods: The concen-trations serum homocysteine and saliva cortisol were measured in 138 intellectuals from three cities, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Chengdu in China. All the subjects had senior titles of tech-nical post, aged 40-69 years. Results: The mean value of serum homocysteine concentration in intellectuals was 20.6±0.8μmol/L, higher than the reference value. With the increase of cortisol levels the homocysteine concentrations rise (P <0.05). The mean value of homocysteine con-centration was highest in 40-49 years old group. Men had higher homocysteine level than women in this investigation. According to the mean value of homocysteine concentration among different cities, Tianjin was highest, Chengdu medium, Guangzhou lowest. Conclusion: The serum homocysteine concentration of intellec-tuals is higher than the reference value. The stress level, gender and resident cities might contribute to the differences in serum homo-cysteine concentration in Chinese intellectuals.
Cite this paper
nullHou, Y. , Hong, Y. , Chen, W. , Wang, D. and Cheng, Y. (2009) Serum homocysteine concentrations of Chinese intellectuals and the influential factors concerned. Health, 1, 83-87. doi: 10.4236/health.2009.12014.
 Folkow, B. (2001) Mental stress and its importance for cardiovascular disorders; physiological aspects, “from- mice-to-man”. Scand Cardiovascular Journal, 35(3), 163-72.
Zwerenz, R., Knickenberg, R.J., Schattenburg, L., and Beutel, M.E. (2004) Work-related stress and resources of psychosomatic patients compared to the general popula-tion. Rehabilitation (Stuttg), 43(1), 10-6.
Von Kanel, R., Mills, P.J., Fainman, C., and Dimsdale, J.E. (2001) Effects of psychological stress and psychiat-ric disorders on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis: A biobehavioral pathway to coronary artery disease. Psy-chosomatic Medicine, 63(4), 531-44.
Loralie, J. L. and David, E. C. C. (1999) Homocysteine. critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences, 36(4), 365-406.
Oliveira, A.C., Suchecki, D., Cohen, S., and Almeida, V. D. (2004) Acute stressor-selective effect on total plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. Pharmacology, Bio-chemistry and Behavior, 77(2), 269-273.
Stoney, C.M. (1999) Plasma homocysteine levels in-crease in women during psychological stress. Life Sci-ences, 64(25), 2359-2365.
Cooper, C.L. (1993) The role of stress in the health and disease process. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 50(9), 562.
Valerie, W. (2002) Feeling the Strain an overview of the literature on teachers’ stress. SCRE Research Report 109, 1-33.
Cooper, C.L. and Kelly, M. (1993) Occupational stress in head teachers: A national UK study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 63(Pt 1), 130-143.
Edwards, J.R., Cooper, C.L., Pearl, S.G., de Paredes, E.S., O'Leary, T., and Wilhelm, M.C. (1990) The relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer: some unexpected results. Behavior Medicine, 16(1), 5-14.
Tunn, S., Mollmann, H., Barth, J., Derendorf, H., Krieg, M. (1992) Simultaneous measurement of cortisol in se-rum and saliva after different forms of cortisol admini-stration. Clinical Chemistry, 38(8 Pt 1), 1491-1494.
Bonnin, R., Villabona, C., Rivera, A., Guillen, E., Sa-garra, E., Soler, J., and Navarro, M.A. (1993) Is salivary cortisol a better index than free cortisol in serum or urine for diagnosis of Cushing syndrome? Clinical Chemistry, 39(6), 1353-4.
Tan,Y., Tang, L., Sun, X., Zhang, N., Han, Q., Xu, M., An, Z., Andrew, W., Perry, and Robert, M. H. (2000) To-tal-homocysteine enzymatic assay. Clinical Chemistry, 46(10), 1686－1688.
Morineau, G., Boudi, A., Barka, A., Gourmelen, M., De-geilh, F., Hardy, N., al-Halnak, A., Soliman, H., Gosling, J.P., Julien, R., Brerault, J.L., Boudou, P., Aubert, P., Vil-lette, J.M., Pruna, A., Galons, H., and Fiet, J. (1997) Ra-dioimmunoassay of cortisone in serum, urine, and saliva to assess the status of the cortisol-cortisone shuttle. Clinical Chemistry, 43(10), 1397-407.
Finkelstein, J.D. and Martin, J.J. (1986) Methionine me-tabolism in mammals: adaptation to methionine excess. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261(4), 1582-1587.
Rees, M.M. and Rodgers, G.M. (1993) Homocysteine: association of a metabolic disorder with vascular disease and thrombosis. Thromb Research, 71(5), 337-359.
Blundell, G., Rose, F.A., and Tudball, N. (1994) Homo-cysteine induced endothelial cell toxicity and its protec-tion. Biochemical Society Transactions, 22(3), 341S.
McCully, K.S. (1993) Chemical pathology of homocys-teine. I. Atherogenesis. Annual of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 23(6), 477-493.
Jacques, P.F., Rosenberg, I.H., Roger, G., Selhub, J., Bowman, B.A., Gunter, E. W., Jacquelin, D., and John-son, C. (1999) Serum total homocysteine concentrations in adolescent and adult Americans: results from The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(3), 482-489.
Zhang, F.R., Hao, L., Wang, J.Y., Lu, Y.Y., Zhu, M.M., Jiang, X.Y., and Yu, N. (2003) The investigation of plasma homocysteine levels in middle- and old-aged people. Jiangsu Health Care, 5(4), 31-32.
Sachdev,.P., (2004) Homocysteine and neuropsychiatric disorders. Revista Brasileira De Psiquiatria, 26(1), 49- 55.
Verhoef, P., Meleady, R., Daly, L.E., Graham, I.M., Rob-inson, K., and Boers, G.H. (1999) Homocysteine, vitamin status and risk of vascular disease–effects of gender and menopausal status. European Heart Journal, 20(17), 1234-1244.
Dierkes, J., Jeckel, A., Ambrosch, A., Westphal, S., Luley, C., and Boeing, H. (2001) Factors explaining the differ-ence of total homocysteien between men and women in European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Pots-dam study. Metabolism, 50(6), 640－645.
Jacobsen, D.W., Gatautis, V.J., Green, R., Robinson, K., Savon, S.R., Secic, M., Ji, J., Otto, J.M., and Taylor, L.M. Jr. (1994) Rapid HPLC determination of total homocys-teine and other thiols in serum and plasma: sex differ-ences and correlation with cobalamin and folate concen-trations in healthy subjects. Clinical Chemistry, 40(6), 873-881.
Brattstrom, L., Lindgren, A., Israelsson, B., Andersson, A., and Hultberg, B. (1994) Homocysteine and cysteine: determinants of plasma levels in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Journal of International Medicine, 236(6), 633-641.
Lussier-Cacan, S., Xhignesse, M., Piolot, A., Selhub, J., Davigonon, J., and Genest, J. Jr. (1996) Plasma total ho-mocysteine in healthy subjects: sex specific relation with biological traits. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64(4), 587-593.
Andersson, A., Brattstrom, L., Israelsson, B., Isaksson, A., Hamfelt, A., and Hultberg, B. (1992) Plasma homo-cysteine before and after methionine loading with regard to age, gender, and menopausal status. European Journal Clinical Investigation, 22(2), 79-87.
Kang, S.S., Wong, P.W.K., Zhou, J., and Cook, H.Y. (1986) Total homocysteine in plasma and amniotic fluid of pregnant women. Metabolism, 35(10), 889-891.
Andersson, A., Hultberg, B., Brattstrom, L., and Isaksson, A., (1992) Decreased serum homocysteine in pregnancy. European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, 30(6), 377-379.
Giltay, E.J., Hoogeveen, E.K., Elbers, J.M.H., Gooren, L.J.G., Asscheman, H., and Stehouwer, C.D.A. (1998) Effects of sex steroids on plasma total homocysteine lev-els: a study in transsexual males and females. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 83(2), 550-553.
Hao, L., Tian, Y., Zhang, F., Zhong, X.Y., Zhang, B.L., Tan, M., Tang, Y., and Li, Z. (2002) Variation of plasma folate levels in adults between some areas and different seasons in China. Chinese Journal of Prevention Medi-cine, 36(5), 308-310.
Seshadri, S., Beiser, A., Selhub, J., Jacques, P.F., Rosenberg, I.H., D'Agostino, R.B., Wilson, P.W., and Wolf, P.A. (2002) Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346(7), 476-483.
Mattson, M.P., Kruman, I.I., and Duan, W. (2002) Folic acid and homocysteine in age-related disease. Ageing Research Reviews, 1(1), 95-111.
Kuhn, W., Roebroek R., Blom, H., van Oppenraaij, D., Przuntek, H., Kretschmer, A., Buttner, T., Woitalla, D., and Muller, T. (1998). Elevated plasma levels of homo-cysteine in Parkinson’s disease. European Neurology, 40(1), 225-227.