Health  Vol.8 No.12 , September 2016
The Risk of Islet Cell and Insulin Autoantibodies and Their Predictive Strength as Markers of Type-1 Diabetes in a Cross-Section of Nigerian Population
Abstract: Aim: We demonstrated the risk of developing islet autoantibodies-Insulin Autoanti-bodies (IAAs) and Islets cell Autoantibodies (ICAs)-in type-1 diabetic relatives and newly diagnosed type-1 patients compared to non-diabetic controls. We also aimed to determine the predictive strengths of both autoantibodies in the development of type-1 diabetes mellitus, and which of the two autoantibodies is a better predictive marker of type-1 diabetes mellitus among Nigerian adults. Methodology: A total number of four hundred and fifty five (455) subjects (211 (46%) males, and 244 (54%) females) aged between 35 - 76 years were recruited for the study. IAA and ICA levels were estimated using ELISA reagents from Biomerica Inc. Other parameters such as fasting blood sugar, urine glucose, and urine protein were assessed using standard biochemical techniques. Results: Relatives of type-1 diabetic patients and newly diagnosed type-1 diabetic patients were at greater risk (p < 0.05) of testing positive for more than one autoantibody (ICA and IAA) compared to non-diabetic controls. In addition, IAAs appeared to be better predictors or markers of type-1 diabetes mellitus compared to ICAs. Conclusion: The present study indicated a greater risk of autoim-mune destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of the pancrease of the type-1 relatives and newly diagnosed type-1 patients and suggests the need for periodic re-cruitment of individuals in the general population, siblings and relatives of type-1 diabetic patients for planned intervention trials. In addition, IAAs appeared to be better autoimmune markers of type-1 diabetes compared to ICAs.
Cite this paper: Adejumo, B. , Dimkpa, U. , Ewenighi, C. , Emmanuel, A. , Odionyenma, U. , Uchuno, G. , Omosor, K. and Aghedo, F. (2016) The Risk of Islet Cell and Insulin Autoantibodies and Their Predictive Strength as Markers of Type-1 Diabetes in a Cross-Section of Nigerian Population. Health, 8, 1223-1233. doi: 10.4236/health.2016.812125.

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