J. A. Langlois, W. Rutland-Brown and K. E. Thomas, “Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths,” Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2004.
 Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee of the Head Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine, “The Definition of Traumatic Brain Injury,” The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1993, pp. 86-87.
 A. J. Schneier, B. J. Shields, S. G. Hostetler, H. Xiang and G. A. Smith “Incidence of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Associated Hospital Resource Utilization in the United States,” Pediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006, pp. 483-492. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2588
 D. Fife and J. Jagger, “The Contribution of Brain Injury to the Overall Injury Severity Of Brain-Injured Patients,” Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 60, No. 4, 1984, pp. 697- 699. doi:10.3171/jns.1984.60.4.0697
 T. Mayer, M. L. Walker, D. G. Johnson and M. E. Matlak, “Causes of Morbidity and Mortality in Severe Pediatric Trauma,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 245, No. 7, 1981, pp. 719-721. doi:10.1001/jama.245.7.719
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System,” 2000. Accessed September 30, 2008. www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/
 B Benz, A Ritz, S.Kiesow, “Influence of Age-Related Factors on Long-Term Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children: A Review of Recent Literature and Some Preliminary Findings,” Restor Neurol Neurosci, Vol. 14, 1999, pp. 135-141.
 C. C. Giza, R. B. Mink and A. Madikians, “Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Not Just Little Adults,” Current Opinion in Critical Care, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2007, pp. 143- 152. doi:10.1097/MCC.0b013e32808255dc
 P. Bittigau, M. Sifiringer, U. Felderhoff-Mueser and C. Ikonomidou, “Apoptotic Neurodegeneration in the Context of Traumatic Injury to the Developing Brain,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, Vol. 56, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 83-89. doi:10.1016/j.etp.2004.04.006
 P. Bittigau, M. Sifiringer, D. Pohl, et al., “Apoptotic Neurodegeneration Following Trauma Is Markedly Enhanced in the Immature Brain,”Ann Neurol, Vol. 45, No. 6, 1999, pp. 724-735. doi:10.1002/1531-8249(199906)45:6<724::AID-ANA6>3.0.CO;2-P
 J. W. Huh, M. A. Franklin, A. G. Widing and R. Raghupathi, “Regionally Distinct Patterns of Calpain Activation and Traumatic Axonal Injury Following Contusive Brain Injury in Immature Rate,” Developmental Neuroscience, Vol. 28, 2006, pp. 466-476. doi:10.1159/000094172
 D. Pohl, P. Bittigau, M. J. Ishimaru, et al., “N-Methyl-D- Aspartate Antagonists and Apoptotic Cell Death Triggered by Head Trauma in the Developing Rat Brain,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Vol. 96, 1999, pp. 2508-2513. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.5.2508
 I. Asikainen, M. Kaste and S. Sarna, “Early and Late Post-Traumatic Seizures in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Patients: Brain Injury Factors Causing Late Seizures and Influence of Seizures on Long-Term Outcome,” Epilepsia, Vol. 40, 1999, pp. 584-589. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1999.tb05560.x
 A. Chiaretti, “The Management of Immediate Post-Traumatic Seizures in Children Following Minor Head Injury: Time for a Multicenter Study?” Child’s Nervous System, Vol. 18, 2002, pp. 109-110. doi:10.1007/s00381-002-0561-8
 O. Necajauskaite, M. Endziniene and K. Jurieniene, “Prevalence, Clinical Features, and Accompanying Signs Of Post-Traumatic Headache in Children,” Medicina (Kaunas), Vol. 41, No. 2, 2005, pp. 100-108.
 W. C. G. Overweg-Plandsoen, A. Kodde, M. van Straaten, E. A. M. Van der Linden, L. G. J. Neyens, A. P. Aldenkamp and M. Vermeulen, “Mild Closed Head Injury in Children Compared to Traumatic Fractured Bone; Neurobehavioral Sequelae in Daily Life 2 years after the Accident,” Neuropediatrics, Vol. 158, No. 3, 1999, pp. 249-252.
 G. Lanzi, U. Balotti, R. Borgatti, G. De Agostini, S. Pezzotta and G. Spanu, “Late Post-Traumatic Headache in Pediatric Age,” Cephalalgia, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1985, pp. 211-215. doi:10.1046/j.1468-2982.1985.0504211.x
 O. K. Jensen and F. F. Nielsen, “The Influence of Sex and Pre-Traumatic HA on the Incidence and Severity of HA after Head Injury,” Cephalalgia, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1990; 285-293. doi:10.1046/j.1468-2982.1990.1006285.x
 M. C. Ouellet, S. Beaulieu-Bonneau and C. M. Morin, “Insomnia in Patients with TBI: Frequency, Characteristics, and Risk Factors,” Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2006, pp. 199-212. doi:10.1097/00001199-200605000-00001
 D. E. Garland, C. E. Blum and R. L. Waters, “Periarticular Heterotopic Ossification in Head-Injured Adults. Incidence and Location,” Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery Vol. 62, No. 7, 1980, pp. 1143-1146.
 J. L. Cosgrove, M. Vargo and M. E. Reidy, “A Prospective Study of Peripheral Nerve Lesions Occurring in Traumatic Brain-Injured Patients,” American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Vol. 68, No. 1, 1989, pp. 15-17. doi:10.1097/00002060-198902000-00005
 C. W. Hoge, D. McGurk, J. L. Thomas, et al., “Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning from Iraq,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 358, No. 5, 2008, pp. 453-463. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa072972
 J. M. Hoffman, K. F. Pagulayan, N. Zawaideh, et al., “Understanding Pain after TBI: Impact on Community Participation,” American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Vol. 86, 2007, pp. 962-969. doi:10.1097/PHM.0b013e31815b5ee5
 R. A. Bryant, J. E. Marosszeky, J. Crooks, et al., “Interaction of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Pain Following TBI,” The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, Vol. 14, No. 6, 1999, pp. 588-594. doi:10.1097/00001199-199912000-00007
 J. T. Beetar, T. J. Guilmette and F. R. Sparadeo, “Sleep and Pain Complaints in Symptomatic Tbi and Neurologic Populations,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 77, No. 12, 1996, pp. 1298-1302.
 J. H. Olver, J. L. Ponsford and C. A. Curran, “Outcome Following TBI: A Comparison between 2 and 5 Years After Injury,” Brain Injury, Vol. 10, No. 11, 1996, pp. 841-848. doi:10.1080/026990596123945
 W. C. Walker, R. T. Seel, G. Curtiss and D. L. Warden, “HA after Moderate and Severe TBI: A Longitudinal Analysis,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 86, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1793-1800. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.12.042
 D. L. Warden, L. M. Ryan, K. M. Helmick, et al., “War neurotrauma: The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) experience at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) Abstract,” Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol. 22, No. 10, 2005, p. 1178.
 C. S. Myers, “A Contribution to the Study of Shellshock: Being an Account of the Cases of Loss of Memory, Vision, Smell, and Taste Admitted to the Duchess of Westminister’s War Hospital, Le Touquet,” Lancet, Vol. 1, 1915, pp. 316-320. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)52916-X
 D. E. Nampiaparampil, “Prevalence of Chronic Pain After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 300, No. 6, 2008, pp. 711-719. doi:10.1001/jama.300.6.711
 S. R. Reid, J. S. Roesler, A. M. Gaichas and A. K. Tsai, “The Epidemiology of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury in Minnesota,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 155, No. 7, 2001, pp. 784-786.