CE  Vol.7 No.14 , August 2016
The Relations between Management Style, Work Motivation and Feeling of Stress among the Arab School Community
ABSTRACT
The current research is based on the examination of the relationship between the level of the teacher’s motivation, and between the leadership of the manager and the educational climate, and because of the scientific importance attributed to the term of motivation and its impact on the quality of the work. In the current research, we examine a part of the factors that could affect the level of the teacher’s motivation. Therefore, the goal of this research is to enrich the existing knowledge in the field of motivating teachers by proposing and testing a theoretical model, in order to explain the difference in the motivations through interaction between personal variables for leadership of the manager and the environment (school climate), and the research group that has been tested, and consists of Arab teachers in Israel. The question that led to this study is: to what extent the level of motivation can be explained through leadership, school climate and work stress? The main hypothesis of this study is a positive relationship between the level of the teacher’s motivation, the manager leadership, and the school climate. In addition this research claims that work stress is the mediator variable which supports the previous relationship. The research was conducted in the framework of a survey, which included 200 teachers of teachers among Arabs in Israel, so that the method of selection of the participants in the survey was random. The main conclusion of this study is that the most influential factor on the motivation of teachers is the principal’s leadership. Apparently, the great majority of the population of teachers in the Arab sector in Israel is influenced primarily by their direct manager, rather than from the work environment. In other words, Israeli Arab teachers prefer to receive positive feedback and strengthening through the continuance of their work, from their immediate manager, and they don’t necessarily rely and get stronger from a cooperative atmosphere.

Received 11 August 2016; accepted 28 August 2016; published 31 August 2016

1. Introduction

“Motivation” is a central concept in learning and behavioral sciences. Motivation leads people to action, persistence in that action and investment efforts in doing this (Dornyel, 2001) . Motivation among teachers is an essential factor for improving the effectiveness and achievements in the classroom and at school (Ololube, 2006) . Our guiding rationale for this study is based on the theory of Lewin (1960) , which considers the behavior of human individuality function of the interaction between environmental factors and the person’s personality factors.

The present study refers to the variable “motivation” as a human behavior which is affected by school climate and through the head teacher’s (manager) leadership as well as pressures on the teacher’s work in schools.

The aim of this study is to examine the degree of variation overall motivation level of teachers in Arab schools with regard to the leadership style and school climate which are mediated by stress at teachers work.

The main question of this research is: what is the variance extent of the general motivation level explained by the transformational leadership of the manager; and by the open and the positive school climate; and by the stress feelings at work?

2. Literature Review

2.1. What Is the Motivation?

Motivation is a term that describes the behavior motives. Motivation should not be the only explanation for the behavior motives, since the motivation interacts with actions and due it is in cooperation with other mediation processes and with the human environment. Although there are many definitions for the concept of motivation, there is still a common denominator for all the interpretations, and motivation still include words such as “passions”, “desires”, “wishes”, “goals”, “destinations”, “needs” and “incentives”.

Motivation is defined as a process that begins with the lack of physiological need or due a behavioral drive which designed to incentivize good. Therefore, the key to understanding the motivation process, depending on the significance of the relationship between human needs, impulses and incentives (Luthans, 1998) .

Other researchers Claimed that, motivation is not defined as a specific behavior, it can be defined as processes in Intrapersonal, internal and complex, which predicting the behavior of three aspects: direction, intensity and continuity (Kanfer, 1990) . In their view, the motivation is internal mental process which is measured and evaluated by two key indicators: the first is the degree of desire to invest in a specific action that could lead to a sense of psychological well-being, vitality, self-realization and self-recognition, this measure is also called powerful. The second is a sense of autonomy. This feeling is assessed by whether the desire to invest viewed as free choice, which corresponds to the values and desires of the individual or based on external coercion (Saada, 2009) .

2.1.1. Internal Motivation versus Extrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation refers to the internal forces driving the individual, when rewards are performing their tasks (such rewards pleasure, curiosity, a sense of progress in relation to yourself and not for a prize). External motivation refers to a person’s external rewards like money or fear of punishment. (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991) , internally motivated people learn from experience, adventure and challenge. Whereas people with extrinsic motivation prefer easy, convenient and safe learning. These people prefer new statements rather than Familiar statements that are complex and not simple statements (Ashour, 2005) .

2.1.2. Motivation at Work

Robbins (2000) defines motivation to work as a human willingness to invest effort in working to achieve organizational goals. The willingness of an individual depends upon his having to provide any personal need. the willingness to invest effort in work is not necessarily related to the terms of exchange between the individual and the place of work and calculations of viability of the individual, but also with the mental structure of the employee, his self-image and the values that he represents (Leonard, Beauvais, & Schall, 1999) . However, expressions of interest alone are not enough. It is necessary to persistently in the investment of time and effort to achieve that goal. Steers & Porter (1991) , referred to three dimensions when it comes to motivation: the intensity of the action, persistence in that action and direction of individual action.

2.2. Theories of Motivation

In the past there have been attempts to explain the phenomenon of motivation, the mechanism for raising resources for individual action and dynamics with whom he works, some of which are targeted to the content, and some of them focused on the process. Content-targeted theories explain what motivates the individual to efforts at work (theory of needs), while the targeted process theories explain how motivation is built and what sustains it.

2.2.1. Content-Oriented Theories (Needs)

Motivation is the power or thrust that expressed when a claim of physical, emotional or social needs requires to get their satisfaction. But not all the motivation leading to the initiative, nor any initiative leads to the desired results. There is need for a combination of talent, ability and skill. Among the theories that deal with human needs have to talk about:

1) Maslow ’s Needs Theory (1943, 1954): each person has five groups of needs (physical, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization). There is an order of hierarchy needs awakening only when one needs not provided, these needs which not provided may be a necessary that drives the man. only when the needs, at the lower levels are satisfied, other needs arise and triggers the human behavior.

2) McClelland ’s Theory of Needs (1961): the theory assumes that the individualperceive through learning which needs are defined for him as part of a culture in which he lives. Environment encourages humans for learning needs, such as achievement, alliance and powerful.

3) The Two Factors Theory of Herzberg (1966) : the theory distinguishes between causes of job satisfaction (factors of hygiene such as: company policy and administration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions), and the causes of motivation at work (driving factors, such as: achievement, recognition, nature of work). Herzberg concluded that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not related to each other, but they are a different occurrence which caused by various factors, and affected by different needs. only by performing work with inner meaning you can get a real motivation that causes job satisfaction.

4) Theory of Intrinsic Motivation: intrinsic motivation describes a positive driving force which leading to the good sense of control, fulfillment and achievement. All this regardless of other beneficial results to the employee or organization (Bar-Haim, 2002) .

2.2.2. Process-Oriented Theories

These theories emphasize the cognitive process that affects the level of employee motivation and his satisfaction. It is customary to assume that the employee is ready to make an effort if he believes that the investment is worthwhile for him and serves his purposes. The theories which targeted process include:

1) Expectations Theory (Vroom, 1964) : motivation is created by the expectation of the individual, that his behavior will bring the results he wishes, and evaluation of individual ability to achieve the result. According to studies, there are three factors that determine the intensity of the driving forces behind the individual investment effort: anticipation, versatility and value.

2) Goal Theory (Locke, 1968) : according to this theory, increasing the motivation is explained by processes of goal setting and adjusting behaviors behalf to achieve the goals. The theory assumes that human behavior and activities directed through conscious thought processes (self-direction).

3) Fairness doctrine of Adams (1963, 1965) : the theory explains the motivation in response interplay between performance and reward, in response to feelings of justice or injustice of these relations. “Fairness” is explained in comparison to the investment of the individual and his compensation as an employee, and those of others with whom he runs interaction at work.

2.3. Leadership, Management and Differences

Leadership exists in individuals who have a basic of leadership personality and a motivation to lead and to influence others. These elements evolve by learning by doing. By using based development methods can nurture leadership potential in those individuals (Mullins, 2005) . Managing people requires personal and of personal elements that has developed in social and subjective psychological environments. The terms “leadership” and “Managing” is interpreted very differently by different people. Some see these terms as synonyms and are often used interchangeably across phrases and sentences. Others relate to two terms as extreme opposites; so extreme, in fact, that they say you cannot be a good manager and a good leader at the same time. However, some people are somewhere in the middle, and understand that while there is a difference between leadership and management, with the right knowledge a person can successfully redirect the path between them in that position (Ricketts, 2010) . Leadership is characterized by a number of styles, including the Board of Managers of the transformational and rewarding.

2.3.1. Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership is a process in which a leader influences the people in the company which is a leader, both on an emotional and intellectual level. The leader is making a difference in people’s aspirations and reshaping the aspirations. The transformational leader does not fit itself to the existing reality, but to interpret the situation and adjusts it to the needs and goals of the organization. Chief designer creates a new reality that can be identify with and inspire motivation to get people in the same situation (Bass, 1985) . Definition of transformational leadership as addressing the deep layers of the human soul with an emphasis on the needs, motivations and morals. Transformational leadership is expressed on two levels: psychological-meets the need for self-rea- lization. Moral-meets the need for moral values and justice, duty and obligation (Ebola, 1999) .

2.3.2. Rewarding Leadership

Transactional leadership focuses on the basic functions of management, control, organization and short-term proposition. Transactional leadership based on the assumption that employees are motivated by the best system of reward and punishment. This style of leadership works best when organizational problems are simple and clear. Inflexibility of leadership is a feature of this model, so any attempt to change the style of leadership it will be difficult and rarely successful, because the leadership style is part of his personality and from the personal characteristics of the leader (Nikezi, Sveto, & Jelena, 2012) .

2.4. Management and Organization Manager’s Role

Management within the organization including the sequence of actions that need to perform in order to reach the final product. The sequence of operations include: planning, control, supervision, continuous data transfer and reliable several levels of the organization and make informed decisions when all available and reliable information to senior levels in the organization. The main role of manager of the organization is to achieve the organization's objectives in the most efficient and effective with maximum utilization of the resources allocated to it for the benefit of the above goal (Adg’is, 2010) . Part of the management process is to “producing” Good managers organize, and highly motivated managers who are aware of the management process.

To produce managers that know how to perform employee motivation, and lead by example, the organization must invest resources, such as executive training and management workshops. Managers are committed to creating a sense of value for their subordinates and enterprise customers with added value can be expressed in value added for the organization and to the product. The ability to do this depends on knowing the senior level organization and corporate culture in which he advocates. When the manager gets all the right tools, and there is potential for administrative, achieving the organization’s objectives do not constitute an obstacle for him (Geffen, 2013) .

2.5. School Management and Motivation among Teachers

The goal of any manager is to ensure high performance of students and faculty in achieving the mission of the school. High-performance require the effective use of enterprise resources through leadership functions of planning, organizing and leading monitoring. Only an examination of the four functions of leadership provides a partial picture of the job of the manager. There are three characteristics of the principal’s role: managers perform heavy work load relentless pace; Activities of the board varied, fragmented and short; Finally managers prefer verbal communication. To perform these roles, the manager must have three skills-reflective, human and technical. Conceptual skills are more important at the top of the hierarchy of schools; Human skills are important at all levels; and technical skills are more important for supervisors, department managers and team leaders (Lunenburg, 2010) . Effective managers engage in two-dimensional categories of tasks. One category includes administrative tasks typically associated with the duties of Manager-creation and enforcement of policies, rules, and procedures, and building relationships based on authority. The second category is called “building cultural relations”, which includes norms of behavior, use of symbols, rituals and stories leadership intended to build the cultural foundations of excellence in school (Lunenburg, 2010) .

Two main approaches regarding the relationship between motivation and the leadership of the organization and its management:

1) The theory of parallels between the leadership and motivation among employees. According to Landsberg (2003) motivation significantly related to the three dimensions of leadership: vision, inspiration and driving force. Moreover, Landsberg believes that there is a significant correlation between personal motivation to motivation for another. According to him, in order to lead others, the Manager will motivate them. To motivate others, the Manager primarily to motivate himself. Cultivation of motivation in an organization is a process that repeats itself over and over again (circle vitality). Within the circle of faith are essential in order (vision), taking action, knowing the results and obstacles and feedback. In the center of the circle is the manager whose job will motivate himself and others.

2) Theory suggesting that people are creatures productive and creative by nature. Under this approach, the work is a human need and the means to refine impulses, and not burden requires prodding by these and other schemes. Approach is based on the strengths of this approach. According approach of strengths (Buckingham & Clifton, 2002) so that people will realize their potential, the manager must help them to do what they are good at for the best. Good performance leads to satisfaction, satisfaction leads to internal motivation, internal motivation is the key to good performance and so on.

Suitability of values occurs when there is congruence between the values of the employee to the organization’s values, or when the organization allows employees to realize their values. With regard to adjusting the values of teacher’s values to the school values where he works, it seems that when we try to assess the range of values representing the teachers, we encounter a serious problem. Teacher’s values are not homogeneous and it’s created in the sector to which they belong (Avishar, Dvir, & Sheffi, 2006) .

In the context of school, found that when the teacher teaches in a work environment appropriate to his personal values, this has an effect on his motivation at work. For example, a study conducted by Ivgi (2004) found that a greater correlation between the values of the teaching staff and the teaching profession affects the motivation to work, so teachers who teach in religious schools are more motivated than teachers in secular schools. This difference can be explained by the fact that religious life gives meaning to life's values and helps a person deal with stress, tension and uncertainty.

2.5.1. Management Styles in the Context of School

Complex manager’s behavior toward subordinates called management style. Manager’s personal style is due primarily to personal values and personality, but also influenced by personal style, assumptions and norms which he prefers to work. Management style has a direct impact on school climate and it affects teachers and students, and there are a number of management styles:

・ Management of designer: leadership which generated a positive moral value among followers and increases the motivation, morale and performance of the Group.

・ Management takes into consideration: the manager that considers the teacher as a person, i.e. directed the staff to realize defined goals and structured, considerate when making decisions and referring to teachers’ personal perspective.

・ Management of change and innovation: the manager tends to make frequent changes and be updated with regard to innovation, which leads on the one hand the enthusiasm among teachers in a similar world view, but on the other hand is a threat to the existing and familiar for those who do not appreciate the frequent changes and need for stability.

・ Management as authoritative manager tends to exercise its authority, using rewards and punishments for their action or inaction of any action.

In general, managers who are interested in the teachers’ response to their authority, avoid the use of force and coercion for the purpose of empowering teachers and strengthening their commitment to the frame. These managers create an organization that fosters the employees who return to the organization their best. Use the pedagogic expertise and promoting the moral leadership of the teachers trust administration, and thus the cooperation and willingness to contribute to the organization. An organization that shares all parts of authority creates a collaboration that brings the entire organization’s development and success. Realization teacher can create a more motivated and bring the organization to higher outputs (Timur, 2004) .

2.5.2. Management Styles and Motivation in School

Friedman (2004) points out that manager play a critical role in creating a school teacher welfare and nurturing. Teachers’ expectations of managers are receiving support, setting clear responsibilities, setting goals, giving feedback, encouragement, informing, creating good communication and effective professional interactions between team members. Also the manager is responsible for creating an open climate in the school, organized and targeted. From the study of the Pritzker and Chen (2010) , we can understand that it is very important from the teacher to his relationship with the board, and is especially significant in the early years teaching. Manager responsible for creating a supportive atmosphere from the management side, and the senior staff to the new teacher. Hoffmann (2009) argues that in schools where the principal’s leadership style is perceived as leaning towards more democracy, more teachers partners in decision making, and thus have a sense of empowerment and their organizational commitment higher.

Democratic leadership style of the manager may indicate that such manager considers human resource teachers mainly in his power to contribute to the ability of the school, not just teaching. Understanding the significance of the relationship between leadership style characterized by collaboration in decision-making and motivation of teachers at work may increase the awareness of the principal, and to contribute to the purchase of tools and skills it needs to know how to invite the teachers to take part in decision-making.

2.6. Organizational Climate and Organizational Culture

The Group’s organizational climate refers to the beliefs and perceptions shared among group members about behaviors and activities that receive support or retaliation in the workplace. Organizational climate has the feeling of employees in the workplace (Cohen & Keren, 2010; Morrison, Wheeler-Smith, & Kamdar, 2011) . There is a close relationship, and often ambiguous between organizational culture and organizational climate, which often is reviewed in the literature. According to Barker (1994) , there is no evidence that the two terms are often used as synonyms. Despite the many studies done on the subject of organizational climate, it is tempting to set the contrast that distinguishes the cultural climate that creates a problem (Field & Ableson, 1982) .

The purpose of the organizational climate in schools is to describe the internal organizational processes of schools, in order to examine its effect on various work processes that exist within the school (Hilali-Levian, 2003) . Open school climate is a concept that includes: the active participation of teachers in the process of determining decisions and thus give them a sense of belonging, in consideration of the manager’s opinion of teachers, sharing of students in decision-making. Open climate, therefore, leads to more collaborative thinking, both teachers and students, in relation to the decision-making process. This sharing behavior itself leads to promote a positive school climate, and as a result, one can expect an increase in the level of school at all levels. Many studies that have been made on the matter of teacher satisfaction, show that there is a direct correlation between high satisfaction with the organizational climate at school. In order to provide the high level of satisfaction has to fulfill the domestic needs of the teacher (such as volume jobs and salaries). The realization of these needs can compensate teachers when jobs or conditions which are less good (Hilali-Levian, 2003; Friedman, Horowitz, & Shaliv, 1988) .

2.7. Work Stress

The stress is defined as a state response that can damage self-esteem or teacher’s welfare (Kyriacou, 1987) . The burnout is defined as a slow erosion of the human soul as a result of unspecified stress (Etzion, 1983; Friedman & Lotan, 1993) . Stress is a common factor in teaching; however, it is distinguishable differences in the ways in response to stress in different teachers. Some perceive the stress as delaying the work, while the other part which sees in stress as a motivating and challenging. Dunham (1986) believes that the stress that teachers feel in their work in school depends on the way they estimate the required of them, and the way they work to cope with the school demands.

2.7.1. Stressors at Work

The workplace is one of the main sources of impact on our lives. Work stress affects our health both mental and physical. Many workplaces undergo rapid change and continuous (Cohen, 2012) . Examples are:

・ Restructuring―this is a very common issue, which includes the merger of companies and personnel reductions. These changes give rise to uncertainty and anxiety, for the obvious reason that employees see these changes danger to salary and compensation or even dismissal.

・ New management styles―many small organizations require that their employees will have many skills.

・ Work related factors-job content, workload and pace of work, as well as the organization of time and level of co-decision-making-all these causes of work stress. Most often, these reasons are affected by the management style in the organization.

・ Factors associated with the worker―as an addition to the reasons related to the work itself, there is also a subjective aspect of each person regarding to his perception of reality. Stress is a one factor that affects the individual which does not necessarily to affect the other. Various differences are also expressed in the work field.

2.7.2. Stress and Its Influence on Teacher

Teachers are under stress long lasting, which provokes negative emotions and physical symptoms manifested. The stress may lead some teachers to excesses in drink, while others will affect their health. The stress is causing frustration and anxiety. Due to all these, many are teachers abandoning the profession in the early years work. It was found that over 50% of teachers leave the profession in the first seven years and they not return to teaching work. Two-thirds of young teachers abandon the profession during the first four years (Byrne, 1998) . Teachers work stress leads to damage which is reflected in a significant loss of experienced teachers from all levels of the workforce. The stress, therefore, leads to undesirable consequences, costly and debilitating, affecting the individual and the organization. manifestation such as: dissatisfaction, poor motivation, absenteeism, retirement-out, burnout, physical illnesses as well as mental illness, negative work climate and lack of cooperation and teamwork. Method.

2.8. The Connection between Teacher Motivation, Manager Leadership, Organizational Climate and Work Stress

Any organization that provides service, it is provide for employees an environment where employees feel pride and belonging. In order to obtain maximum efficiency of the employees, the organization take into account many causes, such as job security, working conditions, salaries, and hours of work. Many of these factors and many other donor’s motivational employees. Motivation is defined as a person’s spirit Mode or as a result of confidence, cheerfulness, tactical obedience and willingness to perform assigned tasks (Perumal, 2011) . School teacher motivation is an important factor to ensure that the teachers do all they can, so that students receive the best possible. Climate creating a positive atmosphere in the school contributes significantly to the cooperation between teachers and students (Perumal, 2011) .

3. Methodology

3.1. Sample

The study sample consisted of 140 female teachers and 60 male teachers, from 5 schools in the Arab sector, and the age range 20 - 39 with half of them (103 teachers) aged 30 - 34. The sampling method of the schools was simple random sampling from the list of schools in the northern region in the Arab sector. These schools were sampled from 27 schools belonging to the Arab sector in northern Israel. Some of the study participants are employees of some schools in the north, who are in work with the college, and the other chosen by my students in the College of Sakhnin for Teacher Education.

The cooperation was long, and many of the teachers were enthusiastic to complete the questionnaire, and helped spread the questionnaires among their peers.

3.2. Research Tools

The questionnaires included the following:

1) Questionnaire of background variables.

2) Questionnaire on motivation of teachers.

3) The Management and Leadership Questionnaire.

4) Questionnaire on school climate.

5) Questionnaire on stress at work.

Responses scale to the questionnaires (2 - 5) contained six levels, according to the following key: 1) Never, 2) Very rarely, 3) Sometimes, 4) Often, 5) Very often, 6) Always.

All the questionnaires were tested, and the reliability described below. In addition, the questionnaires were validated by an expert of Statistics from Sakhnin College and he found that the questionnaires validity was high.

a) Questionnaire of background variable (Profile of background information):

This section included questions regarding information: 1) Sex; 2) Age; 3) Teaching experience; 4) The maturity of school (elementary, intermediate, upper, and comprehensive); 5) Education; 6) The teaching profession; 7) The role of the school; 8) Status.

Ladder answers of all the research tools provided on the scale of numbers by the Likert scale, from number 1 to 6 as follows: (1. Never, 2. Very Rarely, 3. Sometimes, 4. Often, 5. Very Often, 6. Always).

b) Questionnaire on motivation of teachers: The measurement tool of motivation was based on a questionnaire of (Ryan & Connell, 1989) : This questionnaire derived from the study of (Ryan & Connell, 1989) , an original questionnaire has 18 items, but in the current study we used only 14 items from the original questionnaire, which measures the level of motivation of teachers. It is important to note that the current study was not conducted distinction and separation between types of motivation (internal and external), but it was made a general reference to motivation test research hypotheses. Motivational variable was constructed by averaging the responses of participants on any statements of the questionnaire, each teacher received a grade of motivation, and a score range from 1 - 6. High score indicates a high level of general motivation. Reliability coefficient of the scale as it is in the present study is 0.843.

In this questionnaire, some questions (1, 5, 7, 11, 14) were overturned, and the Statistician turned them into a time of data analysis.

c) The measurement tool of leadership (Bass, 1995) : The originally questionnaire consisting 28 items that measure transformational leadership, transactional leadership and leadership inevitable, but the current study was conducted in reference only to some measures transformational leadership, changing transformational leadership is built by averaging statements relating to this dimension, each teacher received a grade to seize the leadership of the principal designer, high score indicates a high transformational leadership. Reliability coefficient of the scale is 0.957. In this questionnaire the questions 2, 3, 5, 17 were overturned, and turned them into a Statistician at the time of data analysis

d) The measurement tool of school climate (Zak, 1981( : The questionnaire includes 31 items that measures a school climate. the climate is measured on a continuum of positive to negative climate. the questionnaire describes the perception of teachers the prevailing climate in the school. the variable “the perception of the school climate” built by averaging the responses of each teacher on propositional questionnaire, each teacher received a mark on the perception of school climate, high score indicates a perception of a climate more favorable, and also indicates that the climate is more open and supportive and encouraging and relations in school more positive. Reliability coefficient of the scale is 0.94.

In this questionnaire the questions 9, 14, 18, 21 were overturned questions, and an expert of statistics overturned them at the time of data analysis.

e) The measurement tool of pressure (Fimian, 1988) (Teacher Stress Inventory T.S.I):

3.3. Research Process

The study was conducted in 5 elementary schools and in high schools in the Arab sector in the north of the country, and was attended by 200 teachers.

The study procedures were as follows:

1) The researcher created a list of 20 schools suitable for research.

2) The researcher contacted the directors of the schools, and received their agreement to hold a study.

3) In conversations with school management have been assured full confidentiality, and that all the data collected in the study are only for the purposes of this study.

4) The researcher asked teachers to agree to participate in his research.

5) The answers were analyzed using SPSS.

4. Findings

From Table 1, we see that in the sample of 140 (70.0%) female teachers, and 60 (30.0%) male teachers. Multi teachers with a bachelor’s degree (52.0%) and married (79.0%). 117 teachers are educators (58.5%) and 79 professional teachers (39.5%). Multi teachers with seniority of one to five years (63.5%) and 30 - 34 year olds (51.5%). 68 teachers teach science and mathematics (34.0%), 23 languages (11.5%), 32 special education (16.0%) and 77 humanities (38.5%). 66 from teachers teach in elementary school (33.0%), 61 teachers teach in junior school (30.5%) and 73 in comprehensive school (36.5%).

Table 2 shows that the general motivation of teachers, positive and open school climate, and transformational leadership of the sampled tend to agree with the statements. For a feeling of work stress, fewer respondents tend to agree with the statements.

Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the sample (N = 200).

Table 2. Statistical data for variables.

Findings Regarding Hypotheses

Table 3, shows that there is a significant positive relationship between the variables of transformational leadership of the manager, and the general motivation level (p < 0.01**, r = 0.606). We’ll see that, no correlation between the variables level of a positive and open school climate, and the general level of motivation (p > 0.05, r = −0.026).

In addition, it appears that there is a significant negative correlation between the variables of manager transformational leadership level and feeling work stress (p < 0.01**, r = −0.394).

The hypothesis assumed that changing the perception of transformational leadership of the Manager by teachers, school climate is positive and open, and a sense of job stress affect the overall motivation of teachers.

To predict the general motivation of teachers based on the variables transformational leadership, school climate is positive and open, and a sense of job stress, multiple regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis shows that can explain the general motivation of teachers on the basis of the above variables (p < 0.01, F (3,196) = 68.016). Predictor variables explained 51.0% of the variance of the general motivation of teachers.

The findings in Table 4 indicate that the variables of work stress and transformational leadership clearly explain the changing general motivation of teachers. Variables Transformational leadership has a greater impact on the general motivation of teachers (beta = |0.53|) compared with work stress (β = |−0.519|) is, as the values of Variables transformational leadership will be higher, so will the values of the Variables general motivation. The connection between a positive and open school climate and the general motivation is not statistically significant and no real contribution.

To predict the feeling of work stress based on the variables transformational leadership and positive and open school climate, multiple regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis shows that can explain the feeling of work stress, based on the above variables (P < 0.01, F (2,197) = 22.693). The predictor variables explained 18.7% of the variance of the general motivation of teachers.

The findings of Table 5 indicate that the variables of transformational leadership and positive school climate and open, clearly explain the variables sense of work stress variables. Transformational leadership has a greater impact on the feeling of work stress (β = |−0.382|) compared to a positive and open school climate (beta = |0.234|). In other words, as the values of variables of transformational leadership will be positive, the lower level of feeling work stress. However, as the values of a positive and open school climate will more positive. It seems that is a correlation between the positive and open school climate and the level of feeling work stress, but his prediction level is less than the level of predictability of transformational leadership and work stress level in the organization.

Testing the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between transformational leadership of the manager and the general level of motivation Pearson adapter test was carried out.

The findings (Table 6) shows that there is a significant positive correlation between the variables of transformational leadership and the manager general motivation level (p < 0.01**, r = 0.606). That is, as the transformational leadership of manager increased, so the level of general motivation of teachers will be higher. The hypothesis was confirmed.

To test the hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between the level of a positive and open school climate and general motivation level, Pearson adapter test was carried out.

The findings (Table 7) shows that there is no correlation between the variables level of a positive school climate is open and overall motivation level (p > 0.05, r = −0.026). The hypothesis was not supported.

To test the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between transformational leadership of the Manager and the level of feeling work stress, adapter Pearson test was conducted.

Table 3. Inter-correlations.

Table 4. Multiple regressions predicting variable general motivation of teachers.

p < 0.01**, p > 0.05.

Table 5. Multiple regression predicting the changing sense of job stress.

Table 6. Correlation between transformational leadership of the manager and the general level of motivation.

Table 7. Correlation between positive and open school climate and the level of general motivation.

p > 0.05.

The findings (Table 8) shows that there is a significant negative correlation between the variables of manager’s transformational leadership level and work stress at work (p < 0.01**, r = −0.394). That is, as every manager’s transformational leadership has grown, so the work stress level will go down. The hypothesis was confirmed.

To test the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between positive and open school climate and the level of work stress at work adapter Pearson test was conducted.

The findings (Table 9) shows that there is a significant positive correlation between the variables positive and open school climate and the level of work stress at work (p < 0.05, r = 0.173). That is the more positive and open school climate increases the sense of work stress level.

To test the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between the level of work stress at work and the level of general motivation, Pearson adapter test was conducted.

The findings (Table 10) shows that there is a significant negative correlation between the variables in the Work stress level and general motivation level (p < 0.01**, r = −0.584). That is, as the level of work stress at work rising that the general motivation level of teachers decreases.

5. Discussion

The study focused on an explanation of the different level of a general motivation of Arabs teachers in Israel. The

Table 8. Correlation between transformational leadership of the manager and the level of work stress.

p < 0.01**.

Table 9. Correlation between positive and open school climate and the level of work stress at work.

p < 0.05*.

Table 10. Correlation between work stress of the manager and the level of general motivation.

p < 0.01**.

importance of this study in the fact is that if the education system understands the causes of motivation of teachers, then it can understand the factors that affect the learning process of streamlining and improving the students’ achievements. During the study, we relied on the theoretical model that offers the hypothesis that teachers are motivated by two types of motivation―motivation driven by personality variables, and motivation motivated by environmental variables. The research question was: to what extent is there a relationship between the level of general motivation of teachers and the manager’s transformational leadership, and positive and open school climate?

The hypothesis also assumed that the different general motivation level of teachers is explained significant statistically by the concept of transformational leadership of the manager by his teachers, and the school positive and open climate, and due to the work stress at work. The findings showed that the variables of work stress and transformational leadership clearly explain the changing general motivation of teachers. Transformational leadership has a greater impact on the general motivation of teachers compared to the work stress, and the school positive and open climate is not significant statistically and has no real contribution.

Findings in the context of work stress and transformational leadership were supported by the scientific literature, which describes the work stress as common in their teaching, as some teachers perceive the work stress as delays in their work, while others see it as a stimulus and a challenge. Dunham (1986) was of the opinion that the level of work stress which teachers feel in their work is dependent on the way that they estimate the requirement of them, and the way they operate to deal with the requirements, so the work stress is explained as a factor which affects the general motivation of teachers, as found in our study.

This way in which the manager defines the way of his subordinates work affects employees’ work stress. If the manager inspires calmness and reliability of his employees, his employees will feel that they are good workers and their stress level will decrease. At the same time their general motivation level will increase because they will strive to please their manager, and prove to him that he does not made a mistake, and that they can meet his expectations.

Our results are surprising and even attempt to attribute things to the characteristics of the population in Arab society, and culture is not enough to explain the artifacts and remains, which perhaps, assumes that the use of different research findings from the questionnaire may yield other.

Furthermore, our research findings are compatible with previous studies (Harel, 2001; Cohen, 2012) , which described the transformational leadership of the manager as a determining factor in connection with the general motivation and a positive and open school climate.

Work stress at work is one of the factors that influence the behavior of the teacher, carrying out a variety of his tasks, and in the context of his burnout. Hence, our research finds whereby transformational leadership of the manager is seen as positive in the eyes of his teachers, naturally must find them with a decreasing level of work stress, and this is also reflected in the perceptions of teachers in the Arab sector―the participants in our study. Here the importance of the existence of a leadership manager informed reduces levels of teacher with work stress.

Our findings are given too much importance, especially because of the fact that the work stress is a common cause of work as teachers (Dunham, 1986) , and that there is a direct relationship between the leadership of the manager and the teacher’s work stress. From this, the leadership style will appreciate the factors that influence school teachers, and knowledge to provide clear tools to these teachers, leadership style will reduce the level of stress among teachers (Harel, 2001) .

These findings are consistent with the conclusions of the study of Perumal (2011) , which argues that in order to enhance the general motivation of employees; we must create a safe and calm working environment for them which they feel secure and satisfactory employment conditions.It should be noted that motivation is the result of the confidence and willingness to perform tasks that meet the qualifications of the employee (Perumal, 2011) .

By the second hypothesis, the different level of feeling stress at work can be explained statistically by the perception of transformational leadership of a manager and by a positive and open school climate. The findings showed that changing transformational leadership and school climate for positively and open climate should explain clearly the changing sense of job stress. Transformational leadership has a greater impact on the feeling of stress at work.The significance of this finding in relation to the first assumption is also that a positive and open school climate is not influencing the general motivation; it is influencing the sense of stress, and is feeling stress affects the general motivation. Hence, on the practical level-positive and open school climate is a factor which affecting the general motivation. A good manager is a manager that his top priority is the success of his teachers, as well as the success of his students. A good manager is one that exploits the capabilities of leadership, organization and available monitoring to its authority. Therefore, the hypothesis that a good manager raises the level of general motivation of his teachers was confirmed. Manager who is proving to his subordinates that his attention is given to them and has a cares about their difficulties and needs, raises the level of their general motivation and thus achieves its primary objective, namely the success of teachers and students (Lunenburg, 2010) . Positive and open School climate, is the result of complex dynamic processes of change throughout the school, and has an impact on the general motivation and feeling of stress at work (Hilali-Levian, 2003) . Our results are compatible with findings in the literature, and especially those who argue that transformational leadership of manager is a greater impact on the general motivation of teachers compared with the positive and open school climate.

Another hypothesis of this study assumed that would be a significant statistically positive correlation between transformational leadership of the Manager and the general motivation level, and the findings showed that there is a significant positive correlation between the variables transformational leadership of the Manager and the general motivation level, and the hypothesis was confirmed-the transformational leadership of the Manager indicates that the general motivation level of teachers will be higher, and the findings of our study indicate that teachers actually take up the leadership of the Manager as affecting their general motivation.

Elements of transformational leadership and general motivation were discussed in the context reference in the first hypothesis. And in our interpretation we assume that a teachers did not distinguish between “leadership” and “Managing” and even though under the literature there are differences between the two statements, there are notable similarities between the two statements, and actual the employees (and in our study-teachers) do not distinguish between “leadership” and “Managing” and they reflect the same attitude or approach to the two statements (Ricketts, 2010) . These findings are supported by findings that highlight the leadership of the Manager as a driver of the teachers. Friedman (2004) noted that managers have a critical role in creating a welfare to teacher at school and nurturing. In his opinion, expectations of teachers from their managers are receiving support, setting clear responsibilities, setting goals, giving feedback, encouragement, informing, creating good communication and professional interaction efficiency between Crew members. Teacher expect to get a collegial support from the manager, which including a support for teacher’s professional decisions facing students and their parents, that the manager will contribute its share of brotherly relations between the teachers, and that will allow the use of creative teaching methods and unconventional.

From the study by Pritzker and Chen (2010) , we can understand that the teacher attaches great importance to its relationship with the management, as the manager responsible for creating a supportive atmosphere for administrative staff from the old to the new teacher. In the study of Trebia (2001) , we also found that the Arab society has a great influence of relationship between managers with their teachers. He claims that there is a danger in having a closed organizational climate (perhaps more common in Arab society), which may lead; strained, estranged and cause a fatigue of the relations between a manager and his teachers t; exhaustion and reduced sense of satisfaction from a work. The importance of the manager’s transformational leadership has been described by Hoffmann (2009) , who found that in schools where the manager’s leadership style is perceived as leaning towards more democracy, more teachers partners in decision making, and thus teachers with empowerment and organizational commitment are higher.

Hoffman also supported by Legziel (1987) , who argued that democracy of the a manager leadership style may indicate that the manager sees teachers human resource it can contribute to the ability of the school, not only in teaching but also affect motivation. Understanding the significance of the relationship between leadership style which characterized by collaboration in decision-making and the significance awareness of a manager of his leadership, is likely to increase the motivation of the teachers, and encourage him to purchase the necessary tools and skills to enable leadership and inviting teachers to take part in decision-making. Moreover, the use of pedagogical expertise and promoting the moral leadership of teachers’ confidence in the manager, and thus the cooperation and willingness to contribute to the organization. An organization that shares all parts of authority creates a collaboration that brings the entire organization’s development and success. Realization teacher can create a more motivated and bring the organization large outputs (Timur, 2004) .

Another aspect of the findings showed that there is no relationship between the variables, the level of a positive and open school climate and general motivation level of the school team. Positive and open school climate includes the characteristics of the school as a social organization (Ichilov, 1984) . Positive and open school organizational climate, according to their perception of teachers, defined as a need for teachers in cooperation in decision-making and in collaboration within teams. As long as the school management will be based on openness, trust, personal example, sharing decision-making and reward-no doubt the open of the school climate will be affected positively (Zak, 1981) . Research’s on teacher satisfaction (Hilali-Levian, 2003) , noted the direct relationship between satisfaction and school climate, and to fulfill high level of satisfaction, it is necessary to satisfy the internal needs of the teacher (salary, for example). The realization of these needs may compensate teachers instead workspace or less favorable working conditions, in many cases are not under the exclusive control of the school principal. It seems that the findings of our study which contradict the prevailing attitude in the literature, can be explained by the findings of Trebia study (2001) , that the closed school climate, due to the nature of Arab society, which attributes importance classes and hierarchy inherent tradition, are due to the school climate in Arab schools is climate closed, which is not reflected in the co-decision-making and teamwork, and management is based on openness, trust, personal example, sharing decision-making and reward (Zak, 1981) .

In reviewing the relationship between positive and open school climate and stress levels at work, the results indicated the opposite direction―there is a significant positive correlation between the variables positive and open school climate and the stress level at work. In other words, as the positive and open school organizational climate is rising as the feeling of a job stress level will rise as well as. Although it was found that there is a significant positive correlation between the variables, positive and open school climate and the stress level at work, and although there were a negative relationships between variables, we can still refer to the fact that there are connections between the variables, and may be influenced by the direction of these variables, because in the current study various parameters are intervening. The existence of possible relations also found in other researches (Perumal, 2011) . This Research has shown that climate creates atmosphere in the school which contributes significantly to the general motivation of teachers and the sense of lowering their stresses.

As to the relationship between the level of feeling stress at work and the level of general motivation, the results indicated the existence of a connection. That is, as the level of stress at work raising that the general motivation level of teachers decreases. In examining theories of motivation, it is argued that the key to understanding the process of motivation lies in the significance of the relationship between needs, impulses and incentives (Luthans, 1998) , and is influenced by many factors (Bar-Haim, 2002) , and usually it is customary to attribute to motivational effects on other variables, including the sensation of stress. When analyzing the meaning of stress among teachers, we find in the literature (Cohen, 2012) that work stress affect employees mental health and their physical alike, and that stress can causes frustration and anxiety, and leads to undesirable consequences, costly and debilitating, affecting the individual and the organization. Phenomena such as: dissatisfaction, poor motivation, absenteeism, retirement-out, burnout, physical illnesses as well as mental illness, negative work climate and lack of cooperation and work simply affected by stress at work (Byrne, 1998) . Therefore, it seems logical that the manager who cares for the interests of his teachers, he will demonstrate positive leadership, and downloading the stress level of subordinates at work (Harel, 2001) . So the teachers fulfill their work more comfortably and with greater motivation and general success of their jobs.

Cite this paper
Accariya, Z. and Khalil, M. (2016) The Relations between Management Style, Work Motivation and Feeling of Stress among the Arab School Community. Creative Education, 7, 1995-2010. doi: 10.4236/ce.2016.714201.
References
[1]   Adams, L. S. (1963). Toward an Understanding of Inequity. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 67, 422-436.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040968

[2]   Adams, L. S. (1965). Inequity in Social Exchange. In L. Berkowiz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2601(08)60108-2

[3]   Adg’is, J. (2010). Styles Model Management by Adg’is P.A.E.I.D. [Hebrew]

http://www.9articles.com/articles/index.php?article_group=3&article_id=41

[4]   Avishar, A., Dvir, N., & Sheffi, F. (2006). Men Facing Academics Teaching: Characteristics, Motivations, Agents and Impact of Gender and Educational Concepts. Study Paths Research, 13, 58-65. [Hebrew]

[5]   Bar-Haim, A. (2002). Organizational Behavior. Volume I, Unit 4, Tel Aviv: Open University. [Hebrew]

[6]   Barker, R. (1994). Relative Utility of Culture and Climate Analysis to an Organizational Change Agent: An Analysis of General Dynamics, Electronics Division. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 2, 68-87.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb028802

[7]   Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership & Performance Beyond. Expectations. New York: Free Press.

[8]   Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1995). MLQ Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Leader Form, Rater Form, and Scoring. California. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden.

[9]   Buckingham, M., & Clifton, D. (2002). Now—Discover Your Strengths. Tel Aviv: m. [Hebrew]

[10]   Byrne, J. J. (1998). Teacher as Hunger Artist: Burnout: It’s Causes and Remedies. Contemporary Education, 69, 86-91.

[11]   Cohen, A., & Keren, D. (2010). Does Climate Matter? An Examination of the Relationship between Organizational Climate and OCB among Israeli Teachers. The Service Industries Journal, 30, 247-263.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02642060802120158

[12]   Cohen, L. (2012). Tigtness and Coping. Betehout, 304, 83. [Hebrew]

http://oldsite.osh.org.il/uploadfiles/stress_work.pdf

[13]   Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and Education: The Self-Determination Perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26, 325-346.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00461520.1991.9653137

[14]   Dornyel, Z. (2001). Motivation Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[15]   Dunham, J. (1986). Stress in Teaching. London: Croom Helm. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667343

[16]   Ebola, B. (1999). The Full Range of Leadership Is the Way to Raise the Level of Effectiveness of Individual Team and Organization. In A. Gonen (Ed.), Leadership and Leadership Development (pp. 26-31). Tel Aviv: Ministry of Defense.

[17]   Etzion, D. (1983). Human Erosion—Theory and Research at a Crossroads. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.

[18]   Field, G. R., & Ableson, M. A. (1982). Climate: A Reconceptualization and Proposed Model. Human Relations, 35, 181- 201.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678203500302

[19]   Fimian, M. J. (1988). Teacher Stress Inventory. Brandon, VT: Clinical Psychology Publishing.

[20]   Friedman, J. (2004). A Teacher as an Organization’s Professional: The Ideals of Giving and Receiving Expectations. Studies in Management and Organization of Education, 28, 95-141.

[21]   Friedman, J., Horowitz, A., & Shaliv, R. (1988). The Effectiveness of the Culture and Climate of Schools. Jerusalem: Henrietta Szold.

[22]   Geffen, A. (2013). Manage the Manager. Backs Group. http://www.lahav.ac.il/article/cco [Hebrew]

[23]   Harel, A. (2001). Perception of the Democratic Climate in the School, Existingand Desirable, the Tendency to Authoritarian Personality of Teachers and Students in the Secondary Educational State and Religious Schools. Work in Order to Obtain a Master’s Degree, Ramat-Ga: Bar-Ilan University. [Hebrew]

[24]   Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the Nature of Man. Cleveland, OH: World Pub. Co.

[25]   Hilali-Levian, R. (2003). Perception of Role Complex, Stress, School Organizational Climate and Their Effects on Burnout and a Teacher Tendency to Leave Special Education in Regular Education. Working for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion University.

[26]   Hoffmann, H. (2009). Type of School and Principal Leadership Style Contracts Empowerment and Organizational Commitment and Task of Sharing in Decision-Making as an Intermediary between Them. Work for PhD, Ramat-Ga: Bar-Ilan University. [Hebrew]

[27]   Ichilov, O. (1984). The Political World of Children and Teenagers. Tel-Aviv: Yahdav. [Hebrew]

[28]   Kanfer, R. (1990). Motivation Theory, Industrial, and Organizations. In M. D. Dunnetee, & L. M. Houge (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 75-170). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.

[29]   Kyriacou, C. (1987). Teacher Stress and Burnout: An International Review. Educational Research, 29, 146-152.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188870290207

[30]   Legziel, H. (1987). Factors Related to Job Satisfaction and Non-Satisfaction with Primary Headteachers. Education Administration Issues, 42, 137-144. [Hebrew]

[31]   Leonard, N. H., Beauvais, L. L., & Schall, R. W. (1999). Work Motivation: The Incorporation of Self-Concept-Based Processes. Human Relations, 52, 969-998.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679905200801

[32]   Lewin, K. (1960). Field Theory in Social Sciences. London: Tavistock.

[33]   Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 57-189.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(68)90004-4

[34]   Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). The Principal and the School: What Do Principals Do? National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 27, 1-13.

[35]   Luthans, F. (1998). Organisational Behaviour (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

[36]   Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0054346

[37]   Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row.

[38]   McClelland, D. C. (1961). The Achieving Society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14359-000

[39]   Morrison, E. W., Wheeler-Smith, S. L., & Kamdar, D. (2011). Speaking up in Groups: A Coeds-Level Study of Group Voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 183-191.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020744

[40]   Mullins, L. J. (2005). Management and Organizational Behavior. London: FT Pitman.

[41]   Nikezi, S., Sveto, P., & Jelena, P. (2012). Transactional and Transformational Leadership: Development through Changes. Kragujevac: University of Kragujevac.

[42]   Ololube, N. (2006). Teachers Job Satisfaction and Motivation for School Effectiveness and Assessment (pp. 60-87). University of Helsinki, Organizational Culture and Climate, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

[43]   Perumal, M. (2011). Key Strategies to Raise Teacher Morale and Improve School Climate. US: Fulbright.

http://www.education.umd.edu/international/CurrentInitiatives/Fullbright/2011%20DFT%20Project%

20Samples/Summative%20Reports/Magendri%20Perumal%20Summative%20Report.pdf

[44]   Pritzker, D., & Chen, D. (2010). Cause Burnout by Teachers in Their First Work in Teaching. Study and Research in Teacher Education, 12, 94-131.

[45]   Ricketts, K. G. (2010). Leadership vs. Management. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky College of Aagriculture.

[46]   Robbins, S. P. (2000). Essentials of Organizational Behavior (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[47]   Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived Locus of Causality and Internalization: Examining Reasons for Acting in Two Domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 749-761.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.5.749

[48]   Saada, N. (2009). The Connection between Self-Esteem and Motivational Learning Orientation among Adolescent Students Arabs in Israel. Jamia, 13, 375-406.

[49]   Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (Eds.) (1991). Motivation and Work Behavior (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

[50]   Timur, T. (2004). School Leadership and the Integration of Students with Learning Disabilities. Studies in Management and Organization of Education, 28, 143-161. [Hebrew]

[51]   Trebia, H. (2001). Burnout of Israeli Arab Teacher as a Result of His Self-Efficacy and School Climate. Studies in Management and Organization of Education, 25, 183-214. [Hebrew]

[52]   Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley.

[53]   Zak, I. (1981). School Organizational Climate: Evaluation Roles in Education. In A. Levy, & D. Nevo (Eds.), Evaluation Roles in Education (pp. 409-432). London: Gordon & Breach Science Pub.

 
 
Top