OJG  Vol.6 No.8 , August 2016
Facies, Sedimentary Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of Dalan Formation in South Fars, Iran —(Qatar-South Fars Arch) Well ASL-A
Abstract: Dalan Formation is one of the most important gas reservoirs of south and southwest Iran which it belongs to Dehram Group and its age is Middle to Late Permian. The Dalan formation is interpreted as reflecting a major tectono-eustatic event related to the onset of rapid thermal subsidence of the early Neo-Tethys passive margin in Arabia and Iran, and the drowning of its rift shoulders. The Dalan formation consists mainly of medium to thick-bedded oolitic to micritic shallow-marine carbonate, with intercalations of evaporates. This formation overlies the Faraghan formation and extends up into the Lower Triassic kangan formation. The current paper is focused on the facies, sedimentary environment and sequence Stratigraphy study of the Middle to Upper Permian Dalan formation in the West Assaluyeh gas field the subsurface section of well ASL-A. Based on microfacies analysis and significant founa and flora, nineteen major facies in five facies associations including Tidal flat (A), Lagoon (B), Shoal (C), Open marine (D) and Mid ramp (E) were recognized in the Dalan formation. Facies analysis and those comparisons with modern and ancient environments indicated that the Dalan formation was deposited inner to mid parts of a homoclinal ramp. The sequence stratigraphy studies on the Dalan formation in this gas field led to assessment of seven main sedimentary sequences of the third-order in the Assaluyeh field, well ASL-A. The boundary between the third-order sequences with the Faraghan formation and between the Nar and Upper Dalan members are Subaerial Unconformity (SU) and the boundaries between the third-order sequences with each other and also with the Kangan formation are Correlative Conformity (CC). The main diagenetic processes in this formation are dolomitization, dissolution, anhydritization, cementation and compaction which played a significant role in improving reservoir quality. The shoal ooid grainstone facies with intergranular and oomoldic porosity comprise the main reservoir facies of the Dalan formation.
Cite this paper: Rezavand, N. , Jahani, D. and Asilian, H. (2016) Facies, Sedimentary Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of Dalan Formation in South Fars, Iran —(Qatar-South Fars Arch) Well ASL-A. Open Journal of Geology, 6, 944-962. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2016.68071.

[1]   Insalaco, E., Virgone, A., Courme, B., Gaillot, J., Kamali, M., Moallemi, A., Lotfpour, M. and Monibi, S. (2006) Upper Dalan Member and Kangan Formation between the Zagros Mountains and Offshore Fars, Iran: Depositional System, Biostratigraphy and Stratigraphic Architecture. GeoArabia, 11, 74-176.

[2]   Fotovat, M., Hosseini, G.H. and Rahimpour-Bonab, H. (2012) Sedimentary Environment of Upper Dalan Member in Qatar-Fars Arch and Its Eastern Margin: South Pars and Salman fields (In Persian). Stratigraphy and Sedimentology Researches, 42, 115-136.

[3]   Ghazban, F. (2007) Petroleum Geology of the Persian Gulf. Tehran University and National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran.

[4]   Edgell, H.S. (1977) The Permian System as an Oil and Gas Reservoir in Iran, Iraq and Arabia. Proceedings of the Second Iranian Geological Symposium, 161-201.

[5]   Dunham, R.J. (1962) Classification of Carbonate Rocks According to Depositional Texture. In: Ham, W.E., Ed., Classification of Carbonate Rocks, a Symposium, AAPG Mem., No. 1, 108-121.

[6]   Flügel, E. (2010) Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks, Analysis, Interpretation and Application. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 996 p.

[7]   Carozzi, A.V. (1989) Carbonate Rocks Depositional Model. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 604 p.

[8]   Davis, R.A. and Dalrymple, R.W. (2012) Principle of Tidal Sedimentology. Springer, New York, 638 p.

[9]   Warren, J.K. (2006) Evaporites: Sediments, Resources and Hydrocarbons. Springer Verlag, New York, 1041 p.

[10]   Lasemi, Y. (2001) Facies Analysis, Depositional Environments and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Upper Pre-Cambrian and Paleozoic Rocks of Iran (in Persian). Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, 180 p.

[11]   Lasemi, Y., Jahani, D., Amin-Rasouli, H. and Lasemi, Z. (2012) Ancient Carbonate Tidalites. In: Davis, R.A. and Dalrymple, R.W., Eds., Principle of Tidal Sedimentology, Springer, 576-609.

[12]   Catuneanu, O. (2006) Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy. Elsevier B.V, Italy, 387 p.

[13]   Catuneanu, O., Abrea, V., Bhuttacharya, J.P., Blum, M.D., Dalrymple, R.W., Eriksson, P.G., Fielding, C.R., Fisher, W.L., Galloway, W.E., Gibling, M.R., Giles, K.A., Holbrook, J.M., Jordan, R., Kendall, C.G.S.T.C., Macurda, B., Martinsen, O.J., Miall, A.D., Neal, J.E., Nummedal, D., Pomar, L., Posamentier, H.W., Pratt, B.R., Sarg, J.F., Shanley, K.W., Steel, R.J., Strasser, A., Tucker and M.E. and Winker, C. (2009) Towards the Standardization of Sequence Stratigraphy. Elsevier B.V, Earth-Science Reviews, 92, 1-33.

[14]   Catuneanu, O., Galloway, W.E., Kendall, C.G.S.T.C., Miall, A.D., Posamentier, H.W., Strasser, A. and Tucker, M.E. (2011) Sequence Stratigraphy: Methodology and Nomenclature. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 44, 173-245.

[15]   Snedden, J.W. and Liu, C. (2010) A Compilation of Phanerozoic Sea-Level Change, Coastal Onlaps and Recommended Sequence Designation. Search and Discovery Article 40594, AAPG.

[16]   Haq, B.U. and Shutter, S.R. (2008) A Chronology of Paleozoic Sea-Level Changes. Science, 322, 64-68.

[17]   Haq, B.U. and Al-Qahtani, A.M. (2005) Phanerozoic Cycles Change on Arabian Platform. GeoArabia, 10, 127-160.

[18]   Bendias, D., Koehrer, B., Obermaier, M. and Aigner, T. (2013) Mid-Permian Khuff Sequence KS6: Paleo Relief-Influenced Facies and Sequences Patterns in the Lower Khuff Time-Equivalent Strata, Oman Mountains, Sultanate of Oman. GeoArabia, 18, 135-178.

[19]   Koehrer, B., Aigner, T., Forke, H. and Poppelreiter, M. (2012) Middle to Upper Khuff (Sequences KS1 to KS4) Outcrop Equivalents in the Oman Mountains: Grainstone Architecture on a Sub Regional Scale. GeoArabia, 17, 59-105.

[20]   Koehrer, B., Zeller, M., Aigner, T., Poppelreiter, M., Milory, P., Forke, H. and Al-Kindi, S. (2010) Facies and Stratigraphic Framework of a Khuff Outcrop Equivalent: Saiq and Mahil Formations, Al Jabal al-Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman. GeoArabia, 15, 91-156.

[21]   Shen, S.Z., Schnider, J.W., Angiolini, L. and Henderson, C.M. (2013) The International Permian Time Scale: March 2013 Updated. In: Lucas, S.G., et al., Eds., The Carboniferous-Permian Transition, Museum of Natural History and Science, New Mexico, Bulletin 60, 411-416.

[22]   Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.C. and Smith, A.G. (2004) A Geological Time Scale. Cambridge University Press, New York.

[23]   Sharland, P.R., Archer, R., Casey, D.M., Davies, R.B., Hall, S.H., Heward, A.P., Hourbury, A.D. and Simmons, M.D. (2001) Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy. GeoArabia Special Publication 2, Gulf PetroLink, 371 p.

[24]   Simmons, M.D., Sharland, P.R., Casey, D.M., Davies, R.B. and Sutcliffe, O.E. (2007) Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy: Potential Implications for Global Chronostratigraphy. GeoArabia, 12, 101-130.

[25]   Lotfpour, M., Adabi, M.H., Sadeghi, A. and Moallemi, S.A. (2006) Sedimentary Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of Dalan Formation in Zagros Area. Tehran University Science Journal, 31, 199-228. (In Persian)

[26]   Aleali, M., Rahimpour-Bonab, H., Moussavi-Harami, R. and Jahani, D. (2013) Environmental and Sequence Stratigraphic Implications of Anhydrite Textures: A Case Study from Lower Triassic of Central Persian Gulf. Journal of Asian Earth Science, 75, 110-125.

[27]   Teymourzadeh, H., Vaziri, S.H., Jahani, D., Kohansal Ghadimvand, N. and Yahyaei, A. (2014) Exploration Characteristics and Lithostratigraphy of the Kangan and Upper Dalan Formations in Lavan Gas Field, Northen Persian Gulf. Academic Research Part A, 6, 311-320.

[28]   Jahani, D., Kohansal Ghadimvand, N. and Mohammad-Jafari, P. (2012) Anhydrite Fabrics in Kangan Formation (Lower Triassic) in Fars and Zagros Sub-Basins. Journal of Salt, 1, 13-18. (In Persian)

[29]   Zamannejad, A., Jahani, D., Lotfpour, M. and Movahed, B. (2013) Mixed Evaporite/Carbonate Characteristics of the Triassic Kangan Formation, Offshore Area, Persian Gulf. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, 30, 540-551.

[30]   Tucker, M.E. and Wright, V.P. (1990) Carbonate Sedimentology. Blackwell Publishing Company, Cornwall.

[31]   Alsharhan, A.S. and Kendall, C.G.S.T.C. (2002) Holocene Coastal Carbonate and Evaporites of the southern Arabian Gulf and Their Ancient Analogues. Earth Science Reviews, 61, 191-243.

[32]   Gundogan, I., Mehmet, O. and Depci, T. (2005) Sedimentology, Petrography, and Diagenesis of Eocene-Oligocene Evaporites: The Tuzhisar Formation, SW Sivas Basin, Turkey. Journal of Asian Earth Science, 25, 791-803.

[33]   Steinhoff, I. and Strohmenger, C. (1996) Zechstein 2 Carbonate Platform Subfacies and Grain-Type Distribution (Upper Permian, Northwest Germany). Facies, 35, 105-132.

[34]   Khalifa, M.A. (2004) Lithofacies, Diagenesis and Cyclicity of the “Lower Member” of the Khuff Formation (Late Permian), Al Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 25, 719-734.

[35]   Sadeghi, M., Rashidi, K. and Shabanian, R. (2015) Introducing the Calcareous Algae of Permian Dasyclads and Gymnocodiacean Family, Pir-Eshagh Section, South Jolfa, a Report of Tabasoporella sp. from Dasyclad Family in Northwestern Iran. Geosciences, 24, 55-66. (In Persian)

[36]   Madi, A., Savard, M.M., Bourque, P.A. and Chi, G. (2000) Hydrocarbon Potential of the Mississippian Carbonate Platform, Bechar Basin. Algerian Sahara, 84, 266-287.

[37]   Riding, R. (1991) Calcified Cyanobacteria. In: Riding, R., Ed., Calcareous Algae and Stromatolites, Springer, Berlin, 55-87.

[38]   Karimi, H., Ghadimvand, N.K. and Kangazian, A. (2015) Sedimentary Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Kangan Formation in Kish Gas Field (Kish Well A1 Subsurface Section). Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8, 655-663.

[39]   Strasser, A. (1984) Black-Pebble Occurrence and Genesis in Holocene Carbonate Sediments (Florida Keys, Bahamas and Tunisia). Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 54, 1097-1109.

[40]   Smith, A.M. (1995) Paleoenvironmental Interpretation Using Bryozoans. In: Bosence, D.W. and Allison, P.E., Eds., Marine Paleoenvironmental Analysis from Fossils, Geological Society of London, Special Publication, London, No. 83, 231-243.

[41]   Madi, A., Bourque, P.A. and Mamet, B.I. (1996) Depth-Related Ecological Zonation of a Carboniferous Carbonate Ramp: Upper Viséan of Béchar Basin, Western Algeria. Facies, 35, 59-80.

[42]   Calvet, E. and Tucker, M. (1988) Outer Ramp Cycles in the Upper Muschelkalk of the Catalan Basin, Northeast Spain. Sedimentary Geology, 57, 785-798.

[43]   Posamentier, H.W. and Allen, G.P. (2000) Siliciclastic Sequence Stratigraphy: Concepts and Applications. SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology Series 7, Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa.

[44]   Sharland, P.R., Casey, D.M., Davies, R.B., Simmons, M.D. and Sutcliffe, O.E. (2004) Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy. GeoArabia, 9, 199-214.

[45]   Stampfli, G. (2000) Tethyan Oceans. In: Bozkurt, E., Winchester, J.A. and Piper, J.D.A., Eds., Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding Area, Geological Society of London, Special Publication, London, 1-23.

[46]   Angiolini, L., Balini, M., Garzanti, E., Nicora, A., Tintori, A., Crasquin, S. and Muttoni, G. (2003) Permian Climatic and Paleogeographic Changes in Northern Gondwana: The Khuff Formation of Interior Oman. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 191, 269-300.

[47]   Tavakoli, V., Rahimpour-Bonab, H. and Esrafili-Dizaji, B. (2010) Diagenetic Controlled Reservoir Quality of South Pars Gas Field, an Integrated Approach. Comptes Rendus Geosciences, 343, 55-71.

[48]   Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J. and Vail, P.R. (1988) Mesozoic and Cenozoic Chronostratigraphy and Cycles of Sea-Level Change: An Integrated Approach. In: Wilgus, C.K., Hastings, B.S., Kendall, C.G.S.C., Posamentier, H.W., Ross, C.A. and Van Wagoner, J.C., Eds., Sea-Level Changes: An Integrated Approach, SEPM Special Publication, Vol. 42, 71-108.