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 JWARP  Vol.8 No.9 , August 2016
Impact Assessment of Hillside Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Agriculture Income: Case Study of Ntarama Sector in Rwanda
Abstract: Nowadays, rainwater harvesting (RWH) technology is increasingly adopted as a strategic pathway for reducing poverty in rural drought prone areas for enhancing agricultural productivity and boosting farm income. The aim of this study is to assess the level of adoption and the impacts of RWH ponds on farm income in Ntarama sector of Bugesera District in Eastern Province of Rwanda. Fifteen farm ponds were visited and the level at which households adopted RWH ponds, their impact on farm income and performance in storing water were assessed. Interviews and questionnaires methods were used to farm ponds beneficiaries and the storage capacity of farm ponds was calculated to ensure that they meet irrigation water demand. Then, Microsoft excel was used as a data analysis tool. The results show that 42.5% of households have adopted RWH ponds and the adoption level of RWH ponds fails due to the lack of training about the role and use of RWH ponds before their implementation. Beside this the low level of public involvement during the site selection for ponds associated with social conflicts among water users was observed. However, it is further revealed that the use of RWH ponds positively impacts on agricultural income on 1/4 hectare per year by about 2,325,000 RWF (3100USD). The studied portion of area can bear 222 ponds of 120 m3 each if all the rain is harvested throughout the year instead of being three ponds. Furthermore, we found that the quantity of rainwater harvested of 328.5 m3 as a total of the 3 ponds was still too less to meet irrigation water demand. As negative impacts, the RWH technology can cause dangerous effects such as social conflicts, breeding site for mosquitoes, water related diseases, accidents and others with a level of severity of 32%, 24%, 20%, 16% and 8%, respectively. This happens when the RWH ponds are not properly managed.
Cite this paper: Munyaneza, O. , Majoro, F. , Hagenimana, E. and Usabyisa, W. (2016) Impact Assessment of Hillside Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Agriculture Income: Case Study of Ntarama Sector in Rwanda. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 844-854. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.89069.
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