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 AiM  Vol.6 No.9 , August 2016
Effects of Cinnamaldehyde, Ocimene, Camphene, Curcumin and Farnesene on Candida albicans
Abstract: Efficacy of five plant molecules against thirty three clinical isolates and two standard strains of C. albicans, differentially susceptible to fluconazole (FLC) is tested in this study. Effect on biofilm (adhesion, development and maturation) formation, morphogenesis and synergy with fluconazole (FLC) against a FLC resistant strain of Candida albicans ATCC 10231 is also evaluated. All the plant molecules tested were equally effective against isolates and strains of C. albicans (N = 35) tested in this study. Cinnamaldehyde was found most effective against planktonic growth followed by ocimene. Both the molecules exhibited fungicidal activity and killed 99.9% of inoculum within 80 and 20 min of exposure respectively at 0.62 mM and 176.8 mM concentrations. Curcumin (5 - 20 mM), camphene (8 - 32 mM) and farnesene (25 - 100 mM), although inhibited planktonic growth, were fungistatic. All the five plant molecules tested in this study inhibited morphogenesis significantly and exhibited considerable activity against biofilm formation. Inhibition of biofilm was found to be stage specific i.e. efficacy was more against adhesion followed by developing and mature biofilm. Plant molecules tested exhibited excellent synergy with fluconazole. However FIC index values 0.155, 0.062 and 0.046 indicate that ocimene was the most effective synergistic molecule inhibited planktonic growth, developing biofilm and mature biofilm growth respectively at very low concentrations. This is the first report of anti-Candida activity of three terpenoids viz. ocimene, farnesene and camphene against planktonic & biofilm growth, morphogenesis as well as synergy with FLC. Plant molecules tested in this study may find use in antifungal chemotherapy individually and or in a combination with FLC.
Cite this paper: Thakre, A. , Mulange, S. , Kodgire, S. , Zore, G. and Karuppayil, S. (2016) Effects of Cinnamaldehyde, Ocimene, Camphene, Curcumin and Farnesene on Candida albicans. Advances in Microbiology, 6, 627-643. doi: 10.4236/aim.2016.69062.
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