AiM  Vol.6 No.9 , August 2016
Extension of Chronological Life in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Ethanol Stress by Thermally Processed Rice Koji Extracts
Abstract: The effect of thermally processed rice koji extracts on survival of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined in comparison with non-heated koji extract. In chronological life span (CLS) tests on high-sugar fermentation, the survivals of the yeast cells grown with heated koji extracts were higher than non-heated koji extract. Heat treatment of the extracts by autoclaving led to a loss in most of amino acids due to the Maillard reaction, although histidine contents slightly increased. In glucose-arginine mixtures, arginine was partly converted to histidine by autoclaving and the addition of histidine prolonged the CLS of yeast cells. The yeast cells grown with the non-heated extracts were more resistant to oxidative stress whereas the antioxidant activities were lower than those of the heated extracts. The yeast cells grown with the heated extracts were more tolerant to ethanol and had a higher reduction capacity in the late stationary phase when the cells were incubated in the presence of ethanol. Maillard reaction products elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species to yeast cells grown under ethanol stress in the late stationary phase. These results suggest that thermally processed koji extracts can act as a protectant against ethanol stress during the late stationary phase of yeast growth and extend the CLS due to the increase of histidine contents by autoclaving.
Cite this paper: Yamaoka, C. and Kurita, O. (2016) Extension of Chronological Life in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Ethanol Stress by Thermally Processed Rice Koji Extracts. Advances in Microbiology, 6, 575-589. doi: 10.4236/aim.2016.69058.

[1]   Miyake, Y., Mochizuki, M., Ito, C., Itoigawa, M. and Osawa, T. (2008) Antioxidative Pyranonigrins in Rice Mold Starters and Their Suppressive Effect on the Expression of Blood Adhesion Molecules. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 72, 1580-1585.

[2]   Yamamoto, S., Nakashima, Y., Yoshikawa, J., Wada, N. and Matsugo, S. (2011) Radical Scavenging Activity of the Japanese Traditional Food, Amazake. Food Science and Technology Research, 17, 209-218.

[3]   Okutsu, K., Yoshizaki, Y., Takamine, K., Tamaki, H., Ito, K. and Sameshima, Y. (2012) Development of a Heat-Processing Method for koji to Enhance Its Antioxidant Activity. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 113, 349-354.

[4]   Martins, S.I.F.S., Jongen, W.M.F. and Van Boekel, M.A.J.S. (2000) A Review of Maillard Reaction in Food and Implications to Kinetic Modelling. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 11, 364-373.

[5]   Powrie, W.D., Wu, C.H. and Molund, V.P. (1986) Browning Reaction Systems as Sources of Mutagens and Antimutagens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 67, 47-54.

[6]   Yilmaz, Y. and Toledo, R. (2005) Antioxidant Activity of Water-Soluble Maillard Reaction Products. Food Chemistry, 93, 273-278.

[7]   Banerjee, N., Bhatnagar, R. and Viswanathan, L. (1981) Inhibition of Glycolysis by Furfural in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. European Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 11, 226-228.

[8]   Banerjee, N., Bhatnagar, R. and Viswanathan, L. (1981) Development of Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae against Inhibitory Effects of Browning Reaction Products. Enzyme MicrobTechnol, 3, 24-28.

[9]   Tauer, A., Elss, S., Frischmann, M., Tellez, P. and Pischetsrieder, M. (2004) Influence of Thermally Processed Carbohydrate/Amino Acid Mixtures on the Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 2042-2046.

[10]   Ansanay-Galeote, V., Blondin, B., Dequin, S. and Sablayrolles, J.M. (2001) Stress Effects of Ethanol on Fermentation Kinetics by Stationary Phase Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnology Letters, 23, 677-681.

[11]   Stanley, D., Bandara, A., Fraser, S., Chambers, P.J. and Stanley, G.A. (2010) The Ethanol Stress Response and Ethanol Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109, 13-24.

[12]   Yamaoka, C., Kurita, O. and Kubo, T. (2014) Improved Ethanol Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Mixed Cultures with Kluyveromyces lactis on High-Sugar Fermentation. Microbiological Research, 169, 907-914.

[13]   Lijun, W., Saito, M., Tatsumi, E. and Lite, L. (2003) Antioxidative and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Sufu (Fermented Tofu) Extracts. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (JARQ), 37, 129-132.

[14]   Berridge, M.V., Herst, P.M. and Tan, A.S. (2005) Tetrazolium Dyes as Tools in Cell Biology: New Insights into Their Cellular Reduction. Biotechnology Annual Review, 11, 127-152.

[15]   Ishiyama, M., Miyazono, Y., Sasamoto, K., Ohkura, Y. and Ueno, K. (1997) A Highly Water-Soluble Disulfonated Tetrazolium Salt as a Chromogenic Indicator for NADH as Well as Cell Viability. Talanta, 44, 1299-12305.

[16]   Kitagaki, H., Araki, Y., Funato, K. and Shimoi, H. (2007) Ethanol-Induced Death in Yeast Exhibits Features of Apoptosis Mediated by Mitochondrial Fission Pathway. FEBS Letters, 581, 2935-2942.

[17]   Tu, D., Xue, S., Meng, C., Mansilla, A.E., Peña, A.M. and Lopez, F.S. (1992) Simultaneous Determination of 2-Furfuraldehydeand 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde by Derivative Spectrophotometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40, 1022-1025.

[18]   Joseph, M.H. and Davies, P. (1983) Electrochemical Activity of o-Phthalaldehyde-Mercaptoethanol Derivatives of Amino Acids: Application to High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amino Acids in Plasma and Other Biological Materials. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 277, 125-136.

[19]   Al-Abed, Y. and Bucala, R. (2000) Structure of a Synthetic Glucose Derived Advanced Glycation End Product That Is Immunologically Cross-Reactive with Its Naturally Occurring Counterparts. Bioconjugate Chemistry, 11, 39-45.

[20]   Yaylayan, V.A. and Haffenden, L.J.W. (2003) Mechanism of Imidazole and Oxazole Formation in [13C-2]-Labelled Glycine and Alanine Model Systems. Food Chemistry, 81, 403-409.

[21]   Kohen, R., Yamamoto, Y., Cundy, C.K. and Ames, B.N. (1988) Antioxidant Activity of Carnosine, Homocarnosine, and Anserine Present in Muscle and Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 85, 3175-3179.

[22]   Costa, V., Amorim, M.A., Reis, E., Quintanilha, A. and Moradas-Ferreira, P. (1997) Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase Is Essential for Ethanol Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Post-Diauxic Phase. Microbiology, 143, 1649-1656.

[23]   Grant, C.M., Maclver, F.H. and Dawes, I.W. (1997) Mitochondrial Function Is Required for Resistance to Oxidative Stress in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Letters, 410, 219-222.

[24]   Sharma, P.K., Agrawal, V. and Roy, N. (2011) Mitochondria-Mediated Hormetic Response in Life Span Extension of Calorie-Restricted Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Age, 33, 143-154.

[25]   Yang, K.M., Lee, N.R., Woo, J.M., Choi, W., Zimmermann, M., Blank, L.M. and Park, J.B. (2012) Ethanol Reduces Mitochondrial Membrane Integrity and Thereby Impacts Carbon Metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res, 12,675-684.

[26]   Balaban, R.S., Nemoto, S. and Finker, T. (2005) Mitochondria, Oxidants, and Aging. Cell, 120, 483-495.

[27]   Mesquita, A., Weinberger, M., Silva, A., Sampaio-Marques, B., Almeida, B., Leão, C., et al. (2010) Caloric Restriction or Catalase Inactivation Extends Yeast Chronological Lifespan by Inducing H2O2 and Superoxide Dismutase Activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 15123-15128.

[28]   Turrens, J.F. (2003) Mitochondrial Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species. The Journal of Physiology, 552, 335-344.

[29]   Alvers, A.L., Fishwick, L.K., Wood, M.S., Hu, D., Chung, H.S., Dunn Jr., W.A., et al. (2009) Autophagy and Amino Acid Homeostasis Are Required for Chronological Longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aging Cell, 8, 353-369.

[30]   Onodera, J. and Ohsumi, Y. (2005) Autophagy Is Required for Maintenance of Amino Acid Levels and Protein Synthesis under Nitrogen Starvation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280, 31582-31586.