AS  Vol.7 No.7 , July 2016
Implications of Design, Management and Recession Phase in Drip Irrigation on the Total Distribution Efficiency in Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) Crops in Areas with High Slopes in Concordia, Argentina
Abstract: The increase of human population generates the need to improve the efficiency of food production. A thorough planning is required following the scope of economic and sustainable development, being irrigation a basic tool, however water availability is restricted and it obliges farmers to progress increasing water productivity. Irrigation uses around 70% of total available fresh water, while irrigation water application efficiency is around 40%. Irrigation systems must follow strong criteria at the design stage to achieve high values of water productivity. Maintenance is indispensable to follow the original functioning level of those systems. At last the daily precise management of systems, following soil water potential, considering the effective rain storage at root depth of the crop and the evolution of daily evapotranspiration, preserving natural resources, are relevant to achieve low values of water footprint of this crop. In an 8 year drip irrigation system, the Uniformity Coefficient of Christiansen (UCC) measured was 95.14%; the Uniform Coefficient of the Minor Quart (UCMQ) was 93.16%. The Total Distribution Efficiency (EDT) was 95.13% when measurements finished while the irrigation systems is of. When measurements also considered the volume collected during the “recession phase in drip irrigation” and the “volume of water collected during recession phase in drip irrigation” collected at different points, EDT was 95.13%. Moreover it can be seen that when three different typical soil of the area were considered, the EDT was, 91.85%, 91.47% and 90.30% respectively, according with different water storage capacity of each soil. The Total Distribution Efficient is a strong method, to evaluate the design and management of drip irrigation systems, under different design criteria, management practices and maintenance of the systems. Water footprint in a blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) crop with drip and sprinkler anti-frost system, were measure and values obtained were 846, 310, 223, 212, 172 and 218 liters per kg of fresh fruit in the period 2010-2015. The UCC and the UCMQ reflects properly the irrigation design, while the EDT reflects irrigation design, management and maintenance. Water footprint is at last the strong tool to evaluate design and operation of the irrigation system and crop management.
Cite this paper: Pannunzio, A. , Holzapfel, E. , Soria, P. and Bologna, F. (2016) Implications of Design, Management and Recession Phase in Drip Irrigation on the Total Distribution Efficiency in Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) Crops in Areas with High Slopes in Concordia, Argentina. Agricultural Sciences, 7, 469-478. doi: 10.4236/as.2016.77048.

[1]   Goyal, M.R., Ed. (2015) Design and Management of Irrigation Systems: Chile. Título del libro: Research Advances in Sustainable Microirrigation, Sustainable Microirrigation, Principles and Practices. International Standard Book Number 13-1-978-77188-016-9 (Hardcover), Apple Academic Press, Toronto, Chapter 8, 147-160.

[2]   Hoekstra, A., Chapagain, A., Aldaya, M., Maite, M. and Mesfin, M. (2009) Water Footprint Manual.

[3]   Altieri, M. and Nicholls, C. (2005) A Rapid, Farmer-Friendly Agro Ecological Method to Estimate Soil Quality and Crop Health in Vineyard Systems. Agroecology and the Search for a Truly Sustainable Agriculture. PNUMA, 277, 290.

[4]   Cañas, J., Jiménez, M., Arellano, R. and Moreno-Pérez, M. (2010) Improving Water Application Using Irrigation Indicators (Mejora de la gestión del agua de riego mediante el uso de indicadores de riego). Revista Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 42, 107-124.

[5]   Pannunzio A., Holzapfel, E., Texeira P. and Bologna, F. (2016) Water Footprint in Cultivated Blueberries with Drip Irrigation Systems in Concordia, Argentina. In: Goyal, M.R., Ed., Advances in Irrigation Management of Horticultural Crops: An Overview, Apple Academic Press, Toronto, in Press.

[6]   Hoekstra, A. and Hung, Q. (2002) Virtual Water Trade: A Quantification of Virtual Waterflows between Nations in a Relation to International Crop Trade. Value of Water Research Report Series 7.

[7]   Allan, J. (1998) Watersheds Explaining the Absence of Armed Conflict over Water in the Middle East. MERIA— Middle East Review of International Affairs, 2, 1-3.

[8]   Chapagain, A. and Hoekstra, A. (2004) Water Footprints of Nations. In: Value of Water Research. Report Series No. 16. UNESCO-IHE. Delft, the Netherlands. 11, UNEASCO—IHE, Delft, The Netherlands.

[9]   Rodríguez Casado, R., Garrido Colmenero, A., Llamas Madurga, M. and Varela Ortega, C. (2008) Hydrological Foot Print of Spanish Agriculture. Reportes de Agua Virtual. Fundación Marcelino Botín.

[10]   Falkenmark, M. (2003) Freshwater as Shared between Society and Ecosystems: From Divided Approaches to Integrated Challenges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Series B, Biological Science), 358, 2037-2049.

[11]   Holzapfel, E., Pannunzio, A. and Lorite, I. (2014) Design and Management of Irrigation Systems. In: Goyal, M., Ed., Research Advances in Sustainable Microirrigation Principle and Practices, Volume 1, Apple Academic Press Inc., New Jersey.

[12]   Pritchard, R., Haman, D., Smajstrla, A. and Lyrene, P. (1993) Water Use and Irrigation Scheduling of Young Blueberries. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, Publication 106, Florida, 147-150.

[13]   Herath, I., Clothier, B., Green, S., Horne, D., Singh, R., Marsh, A., Buchanan, A. and Burgess, R. (2012) Measuring the Grey-Water Footprint of Potato Production.

[14]   Deuret, M., Green, S., Clothier, B. and Mowat, A. (2011) Can Product Water Footprints Indicate the Hydrological Impact of Primary Production?—A Case Study of New Zealand Kiwifruit. Journal of Hydrology, 408, 246-256.

[15]   Mekkonen, M. and Hoekstra, A. (2010) A Global and High-Resolution Assessment of the Green, Blue and Grey Water Footprint of Wheat. Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences, 14, 1259-1276.

[16]   Cifuentes, H. and Merino, F. (2013) Hydraulic Footprints to Determine Water Use and to Manage Water Resources. Book Series 50, 210. (Spanish)

[17]   Pannunzio, A. and Texeira-Soria, P. (2010) Fertigation Trial in Four Blueberries Varieties in nOrthern Argentina. 28th International Horticultural Congress, Lisboa-Portugal, 22-27 August 2010, 280.

[18]   Bryla, D. and Strik, B. (2005) Water Requirements of High Bush Blueberry Planted at Normal and High Densityspacings. HortScience, 40, 1058-1059.

[19]   Holzapfel, E.A. (2002) Irrigation in Cranberry. International Congress on Vaccinium corymbosum, Universidad de Concepción, Chillan, Chile.

[20]   Holzapfel, E.A. (1984) Selection and Design of Surface Irrigation Methods. PhD Thesis, University of California, Davis.

[21]   Heinzenknecht, G. (2005) Impact of “El Niño or La Niña” on Rainfall. Report by Office of Risks and Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Ganadería y Pesca.

[22]   Haman, R., Pritchard, T., Smajstrla, A., Zazueta, F. and Lyrene, P. (1997) Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients for Young Blueberries in Florida. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 13, 209-216.

[23]   Pannunzio, A., Vilella, F., Texeira-Soria, P. and Premuzik, Z. (2011) Impact of Irrigation Systems in Blueberries. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 15, 3-8.

[24]   Bryla, D. and Strik B. (2007) Effects of Cultivar and Plant Spacing on the Seasonal Water Requirements of High Bush Blueberry. HortScience, 132, 270-277.

[25]   Bryla, D., Yorgey, B. and Shireman, A. (2009) Irrigation Management Effects on Yield Andfruit Quality of Highbush Blueberry. Acta Horticulturae, 810, 649-656.

[26]   Bryla, D. (2008) Water Requirements of Young Blueberry Plants Irrigated by Sprinklers, Microsprays and Drip. Proceedings on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 792, Corvalis, 135-139.

[27]   English, M.J., Solomon, K.H. and Hoffman, G.J. (2002) A Paradigm Shift in Irrigation Management. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 128, 267-277.

[28]   Pannunzio, A. (2010) Efectos de sustentabilidad de los sistemas de riego en arándanos. Orientación, Buenos Aires, 86 p.