Back
 GEP  Vol.4 No.7 , July 2016
Edge Effects of Oil Pipeline Canopy Openings on Tree Community Structure and Dynamics in a Montane Atlantic Forest
Abstract: The Atlantic forest has historically been severely deforested, and only fragments currently remain that are subject to a wide variety of anthropogenic impacts, including edge effects that can cause structural and functional degradation. The Tinguá Biological Reserve-RJ comprises approximately 26,000 hectares of well-preserved Atlantic Forest, but it is subject to impacts caused by two canopy openings along oil pipelines. Comparisons were made between pipeline edges and forest interiors to evaluate edge effects on the structure and dynamics of those tree communities. Tree densities were higher along forest edges, apparently increasing over time. Tree basal areas, on the other hand, have decreased along edges due to higher mortality rates. Linear canopy opening edges showed higher densities of small trees, while the interior had more very large trees, indicating changes in successional processes and community structural patterns due to edge effects.
Cite this paper: Rodrigues, P. , Melo, L. , Abreu, R. and Iguatemy, M. (2016) Edge Effects of Oil Pipeline Canopy Openings on Tree Community Structure and Dynamics in a Montane Atlantic Forest. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 4, 132-140. doi: 10.4236/gep.2016.47014.
References

[1]   Malcon, J.R. (1994) Edge Effects in Central Amazonia Forest Fragments. Ecology, 75, 2438-2445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1940897

[2]   Laurance, W.F., Lovejoy, T.E., Vasconcelos, H.L., Bruna, E.M., Didham, R.K., Stouffer, P.C., Gascon, C., Bierregaard, R.O., Laurance, S.G. and Sampaio, E. (2002) Ecosystem Decay of Amazonian Forest Fragments: A 22-Year Investigation. Conservation Biology, 13, 605-618.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.01025.x

[3]   Kapos, V., Wandelli, E., Camargo, J.L. and Ganade, G. (1997) Edge-Related Changes in Environment and Plant Responses Due to Forest Fragmentation in Central Amazonia. In: Laurance, W.F. and Bierregaard-Jr., R.O., Eds., Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, Chicago University Press, Chicago, 33-44.

[4]   Ries, L., Fletcher, R.J., Battin, J. and Sisk, T.D. (2004) Ecological Responses to Habitat Edges. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 35, 491-522.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.112202.130148

[5]   Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J. and Margules, C.R. (1991) Biological Consequences of Ecosystem Fragmentation: A Review. Conservation Biology, 5, 18-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1991.tb00384.x

[6]   Tabarelli, M., Silva, J.M.C. and Gascon, C. (2004) Forest Fragmentation, Synergisms and the Impoverishment of Neotropical Forests. Biological Conservation, 13, 1419-1425.

[7]   Laurance, W.F., Ferreira, L.V., Rankin deMerona, J.M. and Laurance, S.G. (1998) Rain Forest Fragmentation and the Dynamics of Amazonian Tree Communities. Ecology, 79, 2032-2040.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[2032:RFFATD]2.0.CO;2

[8]   Laurance, W.F. (2000) Do Edge Effects Occur over Large Spatial Scales? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 134-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)01838-3

[9]   Sizer, N. and Tanner, E.V.J. (1999) Responses of Woody Plant Seedlings to Edge Formation in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest, Amazonia. Biological Conservation, 91, 135-142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00076-2

[10]   Laurence, W.F. and Bierregaard, R.O. (1997) Tropical Forest Remnants; Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities. Chicago University Press, Chicago.

[11]   Rizzini, C.T. (1997) Tratado de Fitogeografia do Brasil: Aspectos ecológicos, sociológicos e florísticos. Ambito Cultural Edicoes, Rio de Janeiro.

[12]   Oliveira-Filho, A.T., Mello, J.M. and Scolforo, J.R.S. (1997) Effects of Past Disturbance and Edges on Tree Community Structure and Dynamics within a Fragment of Tropical Semideciduous Forest in South-Eastern Brazil. Plant Ecology, 131, 45-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009744207641

[13]   Ribeiro, M.C., Metzger, J.P., Martensen, A.C., Ponzoni F.J. and Hirota, M.M. (2009) The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: How Much Is Left, and How Is the Remaining Forest Distributed? Implications for Conservation. Biological Conservation, 142, 1141-1153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.021

[14]   Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., Fonseca, G.A.B. and Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities. Nature, 403, 853-858.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35002501

[15]   Laurance, W.F., Nascimento, H.M.E., Laurance, S.G., Andrade, A., Ewers, R.M., Harms, K.E., Luizao, R.C.C. and Ribeiro, J.E. (2007) Habitat Fragmentation, Variable Edge Effects and the Landscape-Divergent Hypothesis. PLoS ONE, 2, 1017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001017

[16]   Dean, W. (2002) A ferro e fogo: A história da devastacao da Mata Atlantica brasileira. Companhia das Letras, Sao Paulo.

[17]   Morellato, L.P.C. and Haddad, C.F.B. (2000) Introduction: The Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biotropica, 32, 786-792.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2000.tb00618.x

[18]   Rodrigues, P. J. F. P. and Nascimento, M.T. (2006) Fragmentacao florestal: breves consideracoes teóricas sobre efeitos de borda. Rodriguésia, 57, 63-74.

[19]   Harris, L.D. (1984) The Fragmented Forest. Chicago University Press, Chicago.

[20]   Bierregaard, R.O., Lovejoy, T.E., Kapos, V., dos Santos, A.A. and Hutchings, R.W. (1992) The Biological Dynamics of Tropical Rainforest Fragments. BioScience, 42, 859-866.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1312085

[21]   Harper, J.L. (1977) Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press, London.

[22]   Lovejoy, T.E., Bierregaard Jr., R.O., Rylands, A.B., Malcon, J.R., Quintela, C.E., Harpe, L H., Brown Jr., K.S., Powell, A.H., Powell, G.V.N., Schubart, H.O.R. and Hays, M.B. (1986) Edge and Other Effects of Isolation on Amazon Forest Fragments. In: Soulé, M.E., Ed., Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, 257-285.

[23]   Prieto, P.V., Sansevero, J.B.B., Garbin, M.L., Braga, J.M.A. and Rodrigues, P.J.F.P. (2014) Edge Effects of Linear Canopy Openings on Understory Communities in a Lowland Atlantic Tropical Forest. Applied Vegetation Science, 17, 121-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12043

[24]   Veloso, H.P., Rangel-Filho, A.L.R. and Lima, J.C.A. (1991) Classificacao da vegetacao brasileira, adaptada a um sistema universal. IBGE, Rio de Janeiro.

[25]   Rodrigues, P.J.F.P., Iguatemy, M.A., Prieto P.V., Reis, T.S., Sansevero J.B.B. and Simoes-Jesus, M.F. (2008) As pesquisas no longo prazo em parcelas permanentes do Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. In: Sanquetta, C.R., Ed., Experiências de monitoramento no Bioma Mata Atlantica com uso de parcelas permanentes, RedeMap Press, Curitiba, 47-80.

[26]   Oliveira, M.A., Grillo, A.S. and Tabarelli, M. (2004) Forest Edge in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Drastic Changes in Tree Species Assemblages. Oryx, 38, 389-394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605304000754

[27]   Tabarelli, M., Lopes, A.V. and Peres, C.A. (2008) Edge-Effects Drive Tropical Forest Fragments Towards an Early-Successional System. Biotropica, 40, 657-661.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2008.00454.x

[28]   Laurance, W.F., Ferreira, L.V., Rankin de Merona, J.M., Laurance, S.G., Hutchings, R.W. and Lovejoy, T.E. (1998) Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Recruitment Patterns in Amazonian Tree Communities. Conservation Biology, 12, 460-464.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.97175.x

[29]   Hubbell, S.P., Foster, R.B., O’Brien, S.T., Harms, K.E., Condit, R., Wechsler, B., Wright, S.J. and Loo de Lao, S. (1999) Light-Gap Disturbances, Recruitment Limitation, and Tree Diversity in a Neotropical Forest. Science, 283, 554-557.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.283.5401.554

[30]   Lieberman, D., Lieberman, M., Peralta, R. and Harshtorn, G.S. (1985) Mortality Patterns and Stand Turnover Rates in Wet Tropical Forest in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology, 73, 915-924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2260157

[31]   Harshtorn, G.S. (1990) An Overview of Neotropical Forest Dynamics. In: Gentry, A.H., Ed., Four Neotropical Rainforest, Yale University Press, London, 585-599.

[32]   Laurance W.F., Ferreira, L.V., Gascon, C. and Lovejoy, T.E. (1998) Biomass Loss in Forets Fragments. Science, 282, 1610-1611.

[33]   Budowski, G. (1965) Distribution of Tropical American Rain Forest Species in the Light of Successional Processes. Turrialba, 15, 40-42.

[34]   Whitmore, T.C. (1989) Canopy Gaps and the Two Major Groups of Forest Trees. Ecology, 70, 536-538.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1940195

[35]   Matlack, G.R. (1994) Vegetation Dynamics of the Forest Edge: Trends in Space and Successional Time. Journal of Ecology, 82, 113-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2261391

[36]   Augspurger, C.K. (1984) Seedling Survival of Tropical Tree Species: Interactions of Dispersal Distance, Light-Gaps and Pathogens. Ecology, 65, 1705-1712.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1937766

[37]   De Steven, D. (1997) Tropical Tree Seedling Dynamics: Recruitment Patterns and Their Population Consequences for Three Canopy Species in Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 10, 369-383.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400008038

[38]   Tabanez, A.A.J. and Viana, V.M. (2000) Patch Structure within Brazilian Atlantic Forest Fragments and Implications for Conservation. Biotropica, 32, 925-933.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1646/0006-3606(2000)032[0925:PSWBAF]2.0.CO;2

[39]   Camargo, J.L.C. and Kapos, V. (1995) Complex Edge Effects on Soil Moisture and Microclimates in Central Amazonia Forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 11, 205-221.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S026646740000866X

[40]   Laurance, W.F., Lovejoy, T.E., Vasconcelos, H.L., Bruna, E.M., Didham, R.K., Stouffer, P.C., Gascon, C., Bierregaard, R.O., Laurance, S.G. and Sampaio, E. (2002) Ecosystem Decay of Amazonian Forest Fragments: A 22-Year Investigation. Conservation Biology, 13, 605-618.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.01025.x

[41]   Gascon, C., Lovejoy, T.E., Bierregaard, R.O., Malcolm, J.R., Stouffer, P.C., Vasconcelos, H.L., Laurance, W.F., Zimmerman, B., Toucher, M. and Borges, S. (1991) Matrix Habitat Species Richness in Tropical Forest Remnants. Ecology, 91, 223-229.

[42]   Sheil, D. and May, R.M. (1996) Mortality and Recruitment Rate Evaluations in Heterogeneous Tropical Ecology. Journal of Ecology, 84, 91-100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2261703

[43]   Sheil, D., Jennings, S. and Savil, L.P. (2000) Long-Term Permanent Plot Observations of Vegetation Dynamics in Budongo, a Ugandan Rain Forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16, 765-800.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400001723

[44]   Zar, J. (1999) Biostatistical Analysis. 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

[45]   Sahai, H. and Ageel, M.I. (2000) The Analysis of Variance: Fixed, Random and Mixed Models. Birkhauser, Boston.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-1344-4

 
 
Top