Improper disposal of solid waste is one of the main causes of
environmental pollution. Converting solid waste into compost and using it as an
organic fertilizer in agriculture are an effective waste management method. Quality
of such fertilizer may affect both human and environmental health. Therefore,
in this study, compost from the compost plant of Sanandaj City was analyzed for
its physical-chemical characteristics and the results were compared with the
standards. In this descriptive-analytical study, compost samples were collected
throughout a 3-month period in spring season at intervals of 15 days (2 samples
in each sampling) for chemical analysis. In the present study, parameters such
as pH, organic matter, EC, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, arsenic,
lead, cadmium, mercury and chromium were studied. According to the results, the
mean pH, EC, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium and potassium
were 7.657, 8.883 ds/m, 37.793%, 26.46%, 2.50%, 0.424%, 0.685 and 0.67%, respectively.
The average concentrations of heavy metals were 0.398, 95, 1.575, <0.5 and
40.275 mg/kg for arsenic, lead, cadmium,
mercury and chromium, respectively. Results from this study were compared with
the standards set for compost. Organic matter content, sodium, arsenic,
mercury and chromium were almost within the acceptable ranges. Lead and cadmium
concentrations were lower than the standard. But, the values of pH and EC, the
percentages of carbon and nitrogen, and also the amounts of phosphorus and potassium
were in accordance with the standards. The results of this study show that the
quality of the produced compost in the studied plant is almost acceptable.
Cite this paper
Sadeghi, S. , Dehvari, M. , Bahmani, P. , Teymouri, P. , Fattahi, A. , Sadeghnia, M. , Fallahzadeh, R. (2015) Physical-Chemical Analysis and Comparison with Standards of the Compost Produced in Sanandaj, Iran. Open Access Library Journal
, 1-6. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101855
 Fathi, H., Zangane, A.H., Fathi, H. and Moradi, H. (2014) Municipal Solid Waste Characterization and It Is Assessment for Potential Compost Production: A Case Study in Zanjan City, Iran. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2, 39-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ajaf.20140202.14
 Ziaee, S., Omrani, G., Agha, M.M.A. and Mansouri, N. (2012) Qualitative and Quantitative Examination of Household Hazardous Waste in Tehran. Advances in Environmental Biology, 6, 676-683.
 Jha, A.K., Li, J., Nies, L. and Zhang, L. (2013) Research Advances in Dry Anaerobic Digestion Process of Solid Organic Wastes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 14242-14253.
 Mbuligwe, S. and Kassenga, G. (2005) Feasibility and Strategies for Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Waste for Energy Production in Dares-Salaam City Tanzania. Resources Conservation & Recycling, 42, 183-203.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.02.010
 Amouei, A., Asgharnia, H.A. and Khodadi, A. (2009) Study of Compost Quality from Rural Solid Wastes (Babol, Iran). Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 20, 55-61. (In Persian)
 (2005) Interpreting Waste & Compost Tests. Journal of the Woods End Research Laboratory, 2, 1-6.
 Sangsefidi, Z., Ahmadi, A. and Qurchian, H. (2005) Environmental Risks of Using Compost from Mixed Municipal Waste. 8th National Conference on Environmental Health, Tehran, 15-17 November 2005, 308-313. (In Persian)
 Abdoli, M.A. (2005) Municipal Solid Wastes Recovery. Tehran University Publishing, Tehran, 12-14.
 Rastgar, A., Joneidi, Jafari, A., Farzadkia, M., Rezaei Kalantary, R., Allah-Abadi, A. and Gholizadeh, A. (2012) The Effect of Solid Waste Compost on Leaching and Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Silt-Loamy Soils. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Science, 19, 277-286. (In Persian)
 Ghiamati, G., Astaraei, A. and Zamani, G. (2009) Effect of Urban Solid Waste Compost and Sulfur on Sugar and Beet Yield and Soil Chemical of Properties. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 7, 155-164.
 Sharholy, M. (2008) Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Cities—A Review. Waste Management, 28, 459-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2007.02.008
 Abbasi, F.M., Ahmad, H., Perveen, F., Sajid, M. and Brar, D.S. (2010) Assessment of Genomic Relationship between Oryza sativa and Oryza australiensis. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 1312-1316.
 Haug, R.T. and Haug, H.T. (1993) Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.
 Yaghmaeian, K. (1980) Study of Compost Production from Solid Waste in Semnan. Master’s Thesis, Health School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 112-115.
 Zazooli, M., Bagheri, M., Ghahremani, E. and Ghorbanian, M. (2009) Principles of Compost Technology. Khaniran Pub, Tehran, 245-271. (In Persian)
 Malakootian, M., Yaghmaeian, K. and Mobini, M. (2014) Feasibility of the Compost Production Using Pistachio Hull and Mixed of Pistachio Hull and Broiler Litter. TB, 12, 24-35.
 BioAbfV (1998) German Bioabfallverordnung, Bundesgesetzblatt (Utilization of Bio Wastes on Land Used for Agricultural, Silvicultural and Horticultural Purposes).
 Tchobanoglous, G. and Theisen, H. (2003) Integrated Solid Wastes Management Engineering Principles and Management Issues. 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 39-67.
 Sefidkar, E., Kazemi, M.A., Mohebbrad, B. and Sadeghi, A. (2013) Chemical Analysis of the Compost Produced in Mashhad City and Comparison with Standards. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, 5, 775-782.
 Ieshita Pan, S.K. (2013) Microbial and Physic-Chemical Analysis of Composting Process of Wheat Straw. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 12, 120-128.
 Rynk, R. (1992) On Farm Composting Hand Book, Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service. Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, 255-7654.
 Farzadkia, M., Salehi, S., Ameri, A., JoneidyJafari, A. and Nabizadeh, R. (2009) Study on the Quality and Comparing of the Compost Produced by Khomain and Tehran Compost Factories. IJHE, 2, 160-169. (In Persian)
 Silespour, M. (2011) Municipal Composting and Its Heavy Metals Standards. Agriculture and Sustainable Development, 34, 18-23.
 Shyamala, D.C. and Belagali, S.L. (2012) Studies on Variations in Physico-Chemical and Biological Characteristics at Different Maturity Stages of Municipal Solid Waste Compost. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2, 1984-1997.
 Heidarzade, N. and Abdoli, M. (2008) Quality Assessment of Compost in Iran and the Need for Standards and Quality Assurance. Journal of Environmental Studies, 34, 29-40. (In Persian)