JWARP  Vol.8 No.8 , July 2016
Microbiological Quality Assessment of Drinking Water in Lalo Commune, Benin (West Africa)
Abstract: Although drinking water is readily available in Benin, its quality presents a public health concern. The district of Ahomadégbé in the commune of Lalo is characterized by several artesian wells. Unfortunately, anthropogenic factors negatively affect the drinking water quality in this area. The aim of this research was to study the microbiological quality of drinking water in the Ahomadégbé district, and to review household water treatment methods employed by the local population. Thirty-five water samples were takenat water collection points, at selected points along the water transportation system and from water storage facilities, and microbiological parameters were measured. Qualitative data were collected via in-depth interviews with key informants regarding local household water treatment methods. Results reveal that there is a significant degree of microbiological pollution of drinking water in this district, particularly during the water transportation and storage stages where microbiological pollution exceeds levels approved by the World Health Organization. Local residents are familiar with several household water treatment methods. However, these methods are inconsistently applied, which limits their effectiveness. In addition to improving the quality of the drinking water resource itself, it is important to set up interventions relating to water treatment methods in local households.
Cite this paper: Johnson, R. , Boni, G. , Amoukpo, H. , Barogui, Y. , Diez, G. , Agossadou, D. , Sopoh, G. and Boko, M. (2016) Microbiological Quality Assessment of Drinking Water in Lalo Commune, Benin (West Africa). Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 816-822. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.88066.

[1]   WHO/UNICEF (2015) Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water. Rapport-OMS/UNICEF, 2015, 90 p.

[2]   Hunter, P., MacDonald, A.M. and Carter, R.C. (2010) Water Supply and Health. PLoS Medicine, 7, 1-9.

[3]   Prüss, A. and Havelaar, A. (2001) The Global Burden of Disease: Study and Applications in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. In: Fewtrell, L. and Bartram, J., Eds., Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health, Risk Assessment and Management for Water-Related Infectious Disease, IWA Publishing, London, 43-59.

[4]   Clasen, T., Schmidt, W.P., Rabie, T., Roberts, I. and Cairncross, S. (2007) Interventions to Improve Water Quality for Preventing Diarrhoea: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. BMJ, 334, 782-785.

[5]   Ministère du Développement, de l’Analyse économique et de la Prospective (MDAEP) (2013) CADRE d’accélération des OMD: Accès à l’eau potable et à l’assainissement de base. 112 p.

[6]   WSP (2012) Impacts économiques d’un Mauvais Assainissement en Afrique: Le Bénin perd 52 milliards XOF chaque année à cause d’un mauvais assainissement 2012 [consulté le 16 décembre 2014].

[7]   Rodier, J., Legube, B., Merlet, N., et al. (2009) L’analyse de l’eau. 9ème édition, Dunod, Paris, 1579 p.

[8]   Moubokounou, G.L. (2010) Techniques de traitement de l’eau à domicile: évaluation de l’efficacité des filtres en céramique. Mémoire de master en Ingénierie de l’eau, option : Eau non publié, 2IE, Ouagadougou.

[9]   Houndonougbo, M. (2014) Current Situation of Hygiene and Sanitation in the Commune of Lalo in Benin in 2013. Master Thesis in Environment and Health Unpublished, CIFRED/University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin. (In French)

[10]   Bartram, J. and Cairncross, S. (2010) Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: Forgotten Foundations of Health. PLoS Medicine, 7, e1000367.

[11]   Johnson, R.C., Segla, H., Dougnon, T.V., Boni, G., Bankole, H.S., Houssou, C. and Boko, M. (2014) Situation of Water, Hygiene and Sanitation in a Peri-Urban Area in Benin, West Africa: The Case of Sèmè-Podji. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1277-1283.

[12]   Dikassa, L., Mock, N., Magnani, R., Rice, J., Abdoh, A., Mercer, D. and Bertrand, W. (1993) Maternal Behavioural Risk Factors for Severe Childhood Diarrhoeal Disease in Kinshasa. International Journal of Epidemiology, 22, 327-333.

[13]   Gentilini, M. and Viens, P. (1993) Tropical Communicable Diseases. Eurotext, Paris, 132 p.

[14]   Gil, A., Lanata, C., Kleinau, E. and Penny, M. (2004) Children’s Faeces Disposal Practices in Developing Countries and Interventions to Prevent Diarrheal Diseases. A Literature Review. Environmental Health Project, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington DC, 67 p.

[15]   Judah, G., Donachie, P., Cobb, E., Schmidt, W., Holland, M. and Curtis, V. (2009) Dirty Hands: Bacteria of Faecal Origin on Commuter’s Hands. Epidemiology and Infection, 138, 409-414.