OALibJ  Vol.2 No.7 , July 2015
Morphological Characterization and Agronomic Evaluation of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistant Single Cross Hybrids for Yield and Quality Traits in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)
Abstract: Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) is a traditional pod vegetable widely grown in low, medium and high-input systems for domestic and export markets. The economic and ecological sustainability of okra in these systems is under question because of the low-yielding potential, sub-optimal pod quality and susceptibility to biotic and biotic stresses especially the yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) of the traditionally cultivated open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) and landraces. Development and use of improved varieties with high yield potential, superior pod quality and resistance to YVMV play an important role in bringing sustainability of okra in these systems. Fifteen single cross hybrids developed by crossing six newly developed inbred lines (RNOYR-14, RNOYR-15, RNOYR-16, RNOYR-17, RNOYR-18 and RNOYR-24), in half-diallel fashion during rainy season 2012, were evaluated along with three local hybrid checks [No. 64 (Mahyco), Avantika (228) (Bioseed) and Shakti (Nunhems)], one OPV check (Arka Anamika) and one OPV cross check for YVMV susceptibility (Pusa Sawani) in a randomized complete block design with three replications during summer 2013 at the Vegetable Research Station, Hyderabad for studying their yield potential, pod quality and resistance to YVMV. All of the 15 single cross hybrids were resistant to YVMV with 0% incidence as against 100% incidence in OPV checks Arka Anamika and Pusa Sawani. On the basis of mean performance, three crosses RNOYR-15 × RNOYR-16, RNOYR-16 × RNOYR-17 and RNOYR-17 × RNOYR-18 were of significantly higher yield potential than the standard check “No. 64”, but of comparable yield potential with other checks “Avantika” and “Shakti”. In addition, these three crosses also of superior pod quality could be exploited for development of commercial hybrid okra. These hybrids would be advantageous for production and quality improvement, trade facilitation and environmental protection.
Cite this paper: Kumar, S. and Reddy, M. (2015) Morphological Characterization and Agronomic Evaluation of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistant Single Cross Hybrids for Yield and Quality Traits in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-17. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101720.

[1]   Purseglove, J.W. (1987) Tropical Crops: Dicotyledons. Longman Singapore Publishers (Pvt.) Ltd., Singapore.

[2]   Sinnadurai, S. (1992) Vegetable Production in Ghana. Asempa Publishers Ltd., Accra, 208.

[3]   Saifullah, M. and Rabbani, M.G. (2009) Evaluation and Characterization of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) Genotypes. SAARC Journal of Agriculture, 7, 92-99.

[4]   Reddy, M.T. (2010) Genetic Diversity, Heterosis Combining Ability and Stability in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench). Ph.D. Thesis, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, 313.

[5]   Martin, F.W. (1982) A Second Edible Okra Species and Its Hybrid with Common Okra. Annals of Botany, 50, 277-283.

[6]   Markose, B.L. and Peter, K.V. (1990) Okra. In: Review of Research on Vegetable and Tuber Crops, Technical Bulletin 16, Kerala Agricultural University Press, Mannuthy, Kerala, 109.

[7]   Preston, S.R. (1998) Aibika/Bele-Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) Publication, Rome, IT, 97.

[8]   Schippers, R.R. (2000) African Indigenous Vegetable an Overview of the Cultivated Species. National Resources Institute (NRI), University of Greenwich, London, 214.

[9]   Duzyaman, E. (1997) Okra, Botany and Horticulture. Horticulture Reviews, 29, 41-72.

[10]   Qhureshi, Z. (2007) Breeding Investigation in Bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agriculture Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore.

[11]   Reddy, M.T., Haribabu, K., Ganesh, M., Begum, H., Babu, J.D. and Reddy, R.V.S.K. (2013) Gene Action and Combining Ability of Yield and Its Components for Late kharif Season in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 73, 9-16.

[12]   Reddy, M.T., Haribabu, K., Ganesh, M., Reddy, K.C., Begum, H., Reddy, R.V.S.K. and Babu, J.D. (2013) Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Quantitative Characters in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 35, 243-250.

[13]   Reddy, M.T., Haribabu, K., Ganesh, M. and Begum, H. (2012) Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 72, 316-324.

[14]   USAID (2006) Activite De Renforcement De La Commercialisation Agricole En Guinee, Lafilieregombo (Okra) en Guinee, 32.

[15]   Thakur, M.R. (1976) Inheritance of Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic (YVM) in a Cross of Okra Species, Abelmoschus esculentus and A. manihot ssp. Manihot. SABRAO Journal, 8, 69-73.

[16]   Nerkar, Y.S. and Jambhale, N.D. (1985) Transfer of Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic from Related Species into Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 45, 261-270.

[17]   NHB (2013) Indian Horticulture Database 2013. Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Gurgaon, 289.

[18]   Reddy, M.T., Haribabu, K., Ganesh, M., Reddy, K.C., Begum, H., Reddy, B.P. and Narshimulu, G. (2012) Genetic Variability Analysis for the Selection of Elite Genotypes Based on Pod Yield and Quality from the Germplasm of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8, 639-655.

[19]   Ezeaku, I.E. and Awopetu, J.A. (1992) A Numerical Analysis of Variation in Some Accessions in Soyabeans. Nigerian Journal of Botany, 5, 51-61.

[20]   Reddy, M.T., Haribabu, K., Ganesh, M., Begum, H. and Reddy, R.V.S.K. (2012b) Exploitation of Heterosis for Growth, Earliness and Yield Attributes in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench). International Journal of Plant Breeding, 6, 53-60.

[21]   Mahajan, R.K., Sapra, R.L., Srivastava, U., Singh, M. and Sharma, G.D. (2000) Minimal Descriptors (for Characterization and Evaluation) of Agri-Horticultural Crops (Part-I). National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa Campus, New Delhi, 230.

[22]   United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (1997) Agricultural Marketing Service, Fruit and Vegetable Division. 1965. Reprinted January 1997. United States Standards for Grades of Okra for Processing.

[23]   Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. (1985) Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers. Indian Council of Agricultural Research Publication, 87-89.

[24]   Sharma, B.R. and Sharma, O.P. (1984) Field Evaluation of Okra Germplasm against Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus. Punjab Horticulture Journal, 24, 131-133.

[25]   Ariyo, O.J. (1993) Genetic Diversity in West African Okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels) Multivariate Analysis of Morphological and Agronomic Characteristics. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 40, 25-32.

[26]   Adeniji, O.T. (2003) Inheritance Studies in West African Okra (A. caillei). MSc Thesis, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, 98.

[27]   Hazra, P. and Basu, D. (2000) Genetic Variability, Correlation and Path Analysis in Okra. Annals of Agricultural Research, 21, 452-453.

[28]   Omonhinmin, C.A. and Osawaru, M.E. (2005) Morphological Characterization of Two Species of Abelmoschus, Abelmoschus esculentus and Abelmoschus caillei. Plant Genetic Recourses Newsletter, 144, 51-55.

[29]   Hanson, P. (2005) Lecture Notes on Tomato Breeding. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Africa Regional Program Training, Arusha, Tanzania, 14.

[30]   Akinyele, B.O. and Osekita, O.S. (2006) Correlation and Path Coefficient Analyses of Seed Yield Attributes in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench). African Journal of Biotechnology, 5, 1330-1336.

[31]   Diaz Franco, A., Ortegon Morales, A. and Loera Gallardo, J. (1997) Fruit Characteristics and Yield of New Okra Hybrids. Subtropical Plant Science, 49, 8-11.

[32]   Martin, F.W., Rhodes, A., Ortiz, M. and Diaz, F. (1981) Variation in Okra. Euphytica, 30, 697-705.

[33]   Atkinson, D. and McKinlay, R.G. (1997) Crop Protection and Its Integration within Sustainable Farming Systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 64, 87-93.

[34]   Batish, D.R., Singh, H.P., Setia, N., Kohli, R.K., Kaur, S. and Yadav, S.S. (2007) Alternative Control of Little Seed Canary Grass Using Eucalypt Oil. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 27, 171-177.

[35]   Camprubi, A., Estaun, V., El Bakali, M.A., Garcia-Figueres, F. and Calvet, C. (2007) Alternative Strawberry Production Using Solarization, Metham Sodium and Beneficial Soil Microbes as Plant Protection Methods. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 27, 179-184.

[36]   Agrios, N.G. (2005) Plant Pathology. 5th Edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 635.

[37]   Maxwell, F.G., Johnie, N.J. and Parrott, W.L. (1972) Resistance of Plant to Insects. Advances in Agronomy, 24, 187-265.

[38]   Gallun, R.L., Starks, K.J. and Guthrie, W.D. (1975) Plant Resistance to Insects Attacking Cereals. Annual Review of Entomology, 20, 337-357.

[39]   Brunt, A., Crabtree, K. and Gibbs, A. (1990) Viruses of Tropical Plants. CAB International, Wallingford.

[40]   Alegbejo, M., Ogunlana, M. and Banwo, O. (2008) Survey for Incidence of Okra Mosaic Virus in Northern Nigeria and Evidence for Its Transmission by Beetles. Spanish Journal of Agriculture Research, 6, 408-411.

[41]   Benchasri, S. (2012) Screening for Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistance and Yield Loss of Okra under Field Conditions in Southern Thailand. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 12, 1676-1686.

[42]   Shastry, K.S.M. and Singh, S.J. (1931) Restriction of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Spread in Okra through the Control of Vector Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 3, 76-80.

[43]   Chakraborty, R. and Mukhopadhyay, S. (1977) Effect of Some Pesticides on the YVMV Disease of Bhindi. Pesticides, 11, 19-22.

[44]   Singh, B.R. and Singh, M. (1989) Control of Yellow Vein Mosaic of Okra by Checking Its Vector Whitefly through Adjusting Dates of Sowing, Insecticidal Application and Crop Barrier. Indian Journal of Virology, 5, 61-66.

[45]   Bhagat, A.P., Yadav, B.I. and Prasad, Y. (1997) Management of Bhindi Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Disease by Insecticides. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 27, 215-216.

[46]   Jambhale, N.D. and Nerkar, Y.S. (1981) Inheritance of Resistance to Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease in Inter-Specific Crosses of Abelmoschus. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 60, 313-316.

[47]   Nerkar, Y.S. and Jambhale, N.D. (1986) Breeding Okra for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus. Indian Journal of Virology, 3, 94-98.

[48]   Singh, J.S. (1990) Etiology and Epidemiology of Whitefly Transmitted Virus Disease of Okra. Indian Plant Disease Research, 5, 64-70.

[49]   Ali, S., Khan, M.A., Habib, A., Rasheed, S. and Iftikhar, Y. (2005) Correlation of Environmental Conditions with Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus and Bemisia tabaci Population Density. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 7, 142-144.

[50]   Dhankhar, S.K., Dhankhar, B.S. and Saharan, B.S. (1996) Screening of Okra Genotypes for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease. Annals of Biology, 12, 90-92.

[51]   Sangar, R.B.S. (1997) Field Reaction of Bhindi Varieties to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus. Indian Journal of Virology, 13, 131-134.