OALibJ  Vol.2 No.5 , May 2015
Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security
Abstract: Agriculture is one of the main economic activities in the world, with its significance magnified especially among the world’s poor. This paper seeks to explore how climate change would impact on the agricultural sector and consequently food security. Agricultural activities in most developing countries entirely depend on rainfall patterns, on the contrary, climate change has emerging as an environmental challenge with adverse impacts expected on food security. This is mainly through incidences of changes in water availability, floods and drought. For example, changes in temperature and precipitation including drought affects crop and livestock yield, hydrologic balances, input supplies and other components of agricultural systems. Equally important, environmental degradation is one of the drivers of climate change that further undermines sustainability of agriculture. Climate change is real and already taking place. According to the inter-governmental panel on climate change (IPCC), warming temperatures are projected to cause more frequent and more intense extreme weather events such as heavy rain storms, flooding and tropical storms and in some cases drought in many parts of the country. Agriculture is one of the most climate sensitive sectors, with projections that 800 million people are currently food insecure. Additionally, it has the potential to undermine advances in poverty reduction and sustainable development. Thus, fundamental changes in agricultural systems are needed because climate change poses new and serious challenges for farmers hence food insecurity. Most important, agricultural adaptation and mitigation pathways need to be developed so as to avoid further threat on food security.
Cite this paper: Kiprutto, N. , Rotich, L. and Riungu, G. (2015) Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-7. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101472.

[1]   Ludi, E. (2009) Climate Change, Water and Food Security, Background Note. Overseas Development Institute, London.

[2]   Smith, P., Martino, D., Cai, Z., Gwary, D., Janzen, H., Kumar, P., McCarl, B., Ogle, S., O’Mara, F., Rice, C., Scholes, B. and Sirotenko, O. (2001) Agriculture. In: Metz, B., Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R. and Meyer, L.A., Eds., Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, and New York.

[3]   Rosegrant, M.W., Ewing, M., Yohe, G., Burton, I., Huq, S. and Valmonte-Santos, R. (2008) Climate Change and Agriculture, Threats and Opportunities. German Technical Cooperation (GTZ).

[4]   UNDP (2008) Fighting Climate Change, Human Solidarity in a Divided World. United Nation Development Programme, New York.

[5]   FAO (2002) The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2001. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.

[6]   Skjei, S. (2005) Using a Fishbone Diagram to Troubleshoot a Satellite Link. The Orbiter, April, 2005.

[7]   Adger, W.N., Agrawala, S., Mirza, M.M.Q., Conde, C., O’Brien, K., Pulhin, J., Pulwarty, R., Smit, B. and Takahashi, K. (2007) Assessment of Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity. In: Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E., Eds., Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 717-743.

[8]   IPCC (2007) Summary for Policy Makers. In: Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A., Eds., Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, Geneva.

[9]   Bates, B.C., Kundzewicz, Z.W., Wu, S.H. and Palutikof, J.P., Eds. (2008) Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC Secretariat, Geneva.

[10]   Nellemann, C., MacDevette, M., Manders, T., Eickhout, B., Svihus, B., Prins, A. and Kaltenborn, B., Eds. (2009) The Environmental Food Crisis. The Environment’s Role in Averting Future Food Crises. A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment. UNDP, Arendal.

[11]   UNDP (2006) Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases. Office of Atmospheric Programs, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.

[12]   Beddington, J., Asaduzzaman, M., Fernandez, A., Clark, M., Guillou, M., Jahn, M., Erda, L., Mamo, T., Van Bo, N., Nobre, C.A., Scholes, R., Sharma, R. and Wakhungu, J. (2011) Achieving Food Security in the Face of Climate Change: Summary for Policy Makers from the Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), Copenhagen.

[13]   Delgado, C., Rosegrant, M., Steinfeld, H., Ehui, S. and Courbois, C. (1999) Livestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution. Food, Agriculture, and Environment. Discussion Paper No.28, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C.

[14]   Pittock, B. and Jones, R.N. (2000) Adaptation to What and Why? Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 61, 9-35.

[15]   Shah, M., Fischer, G. and van Velthuizen, H. (2008) Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture. The Challenges of Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg.