Back
 Health  Vol.8 No.10 , July 2016
Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Secondary School Teenagers towards HIV Transmission and Prevention in Rural and Urban Areas of Central Uganda
Abstract: HIV/AIDS has remained a challenge in Uganda among adolescent despite the ABC strategy used globally to prevent HIV infection. The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of secondary school teenagers towards HIV transmission and prevention in rural and urban schools of central Uganda. A cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaires and structured interviews was used to collect data from adolescents in secondary schools in Kampala and Buikwe districts. Eight schools were randomly selected with 4 schools in each district. A total of 245 students from schools were recruited in the study with 120 and 125 students from urban Kampala and rural Buikwe district schools respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. The results were expressed as percentages in a 2 × 2 tables. The mean age of the participants was 15.9 ± 2.5 years. Results showed that 95.1% participants had knowledge on HIV/AIDS in both urban and rural schools and 27.4% knew all the modes of HIV transmission. About 83.7% knew the ABC strategy for HIV prevention and 37.6% would talk about HIV/AIDS mainly with friends. For HIV cure, 62.0% of study participants reported non-cure and 24.9% were not sure. The remaining 13.1% of the study participants in both urban and rural schools reported that HIV can be cured. And the modes of curing HIV that were mentioned by participants included spiritual healing, transmitting it to others through sexual intercourse and that antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs can cure it as well as that it can be cured abroad. About 65.7% of participants reported recognition of one with HIV/ AIDS and by having red lips, being sickly; weight loss, skin rash and being very rich were mentioned. About 39.2% of the study participants mentioned that they cannot get infected with HIV and can’t contract HIV at all and 18.4% believed that chances of getting HIV infection were high. On perception and attitude on condoms and their use, participants reported that it is a sign of mistrust, reduces sexual pleasures and they are embarrassing to buy. Majority of the participants in both urban and rural schools had some knowledge on HIV/AIDS and the ABC strategy for HIV prevention. However, there was a knowledge gap on the various modes of HIV transmission and prevention. There was misconception of the participants on HIV/AIDS cure, condom use and on the chances of contracting HIV. About the source of HIV/AIDS information, majority of the participants were getting information on HIV/AIDS from friends of which some information was misleading. This false information could be the reason for the increased HIV prevalence reported among the adolescents in the schools. Generally, participants had some knowledge on HIV/AIDS though they had knowledge gap on HIV transmission and prevention.
Cite this paper: Rukundo, A. , Muwonge, M. , Mugisha, D. , Aturwanaho, D. , Kasangaki, A. and Bbosa, G. (2016) Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Secondary School Teenagers towards HIV Transmission and Prevention in Rural and Urban Areas of Central Uganda. Health, 8, 937-952. doi: 10.4236/health.2016.810097.
References

[1]   UNAIDS (2015) Global AIDS Statistics: 2015 World AIDS Day report, Fact Sheet 2015. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Geneva, 1-8.
http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/20150901_FactSheet_2015_en.pdf

[2]   WHO (2015) HIV/AIDS: Global Update on the Health Sector Response to HIV, 2014. WHO Reference Number: WHO/HIV/ 2014.15. World Health Organisation, Geneva, 1-16.
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/128494/1/9789241507585_eng.pdf

[3]   WHO (2015) Global AIDS Response Progressive Reporting 2015: Guidance. World Health Organization and UNAIDS 2015, Geneva, 1-218.
http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/JC2702_GARPR2015guidelines_en.pdf

[4]   Cheetham, N., Bridges, B. and Kalina, L. (2012) Youth and the Global HIV Pandemic Reaching Key Affected Populations and Empowering a Generation. Advocates for Youth, Washington DC, 1-4.
http://advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/youth-and-global-hiv-pandemic.pdf

[5]   UNICEF (2011) Opportunity in Crisis: Preventing HIV from Early Adolescence to Young ADULTHOOD. United Nation’s Children’s Fund (UNICEF), UNICEF, New York, 1-68.
http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Opportunity_in_Crisis-Report_EN_052711.pdf

[6]   Global-Fund (2014) Corporate Results Report: The Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Global Fund, Geneva, 1-52.

[7]   WHO (2016) Adolescent Health. World Health Organization, Geneva.
http://www.who.int/topics/adolescent_health/en/

[8]   UNAIDS (2014) Uganda Developing Subnational Estimates of HIV Prevalence and the Number of People Living with HIV: Uganda. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, UNAIDS/JC2665E, 1-22.
http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/2014_subnationalestimatessurvey_Uganda_en.pdf

[9]   UNAIDS (2015) How AIDS Changed Everything: MDG 6: 15 Years, 15 Lessons of Hope from the AIDS Response. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), 1-548.
http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/MDG6Report_en.pdf

[10]   UMoH (2012) Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey (UAIS) 2011. Uganda Ministry of Health (UMoH), Kampala, 1-252.
http://health.go.ug/docs/UAIS_2011_REPORT.pdf

[11]   UNAIDS (2014) The GAP Report. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), 1-422.
http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/UNAIDS_Gap_report_en.pdf.

[12]   Kasirye, I. (2013) HIV/AIDS Sero-Prevalence and Socioeconomic Status: Evidence from Uganda. The Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC), Makerere University Campus, Kampala, Research Series No. 95, 1-52.
http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/148952/2/series95.pdf

[13]   UNAIDS (2012) Global Report on AIDS Epidemic. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), 1-212.

[14]   UNAIDS/UAC (2012) Global AIDS Response Progress Report: Uganda Jan 2010-Dec 2012. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)/Uganda AIDS Commission (UAC), 1-71.

[15]   USAID (2008) Cross Generational Sex: Risks and Opportunities. USAID Population Reference Bureau/Interagency Youth Working Group (IGWG), 1-6.
http://www.igwg.org/igwg_media/crossgensex.pdf

[16]   USAIDS/PRB (2007) Addressing Cross-Generational Sex. United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Population Reference Bureau (PRB), 1-92.
http://www.igwg.org/igwg_media/addressingcgsex.pdf

[17]   Avert (2013) HIV/AIDS Information 2013.
http://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/sub-saharan-africa/uganda .

[18]   CDC (2015) HIV among Youth. Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Tuberculosis Preven-tion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/age/youth/

[19]   UNAIDS (2015) The HIV and AIDS Uganda Country Progressive Report 2014. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), 1-73.
http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/country/documents/UGA_narrative_report_2015.pdf

[20]   Coates, J.T., Richter, L. and Cace, C. (2008) HIV Prevention—Behavioural Strategies to Reduce HIV Transmission: How to Make Them Work Better. The Lancet, 1-16.
http://www.who.int/hiv/events/artprevention/coates.pdf

[21]   UNAIDS (2010) Combination HIV Prevention: Tailoring and Coordinating Biomedical, Behavioural and Structural Strategies to Reduce New HIV Infections. A UNAIDS Discussion Paper 10, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS), 1-36.
http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/JC2007_Combination_Prevention_paper_en_0.pdf

[22]   USAID (2003) The ABCs of HIV Prevention. US Agency for International Development (USAID) Bureau for Global Health, 1-3.
http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/166065/Uganda-ABC%20Model.pdf

[23]   Barr, E.M. and Moore, M.J. (2014) Safer Sex Day: A Program to Reduce Risky Sexual Behaviors. American International Journal of Social Science, 3, 1-12.
http://www.aijssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_4_July_2014/1.pdf

[24]   CDC (2015) Schools Play a Key Role in HIV/STD and Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health.
http://www.cdc.gov/features/hivstdprevention/

[25]   Kirby, D. (2007) Sex and HIV Programs: Their Impact on Sexual Behaviors of Young People throughout the World. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40, 206-217.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.11.143

[26]   Landor, M.A. and Simons, G.L. (2014) Why Virginity Pledges Succeed or Fail: The Moderating Effect of Religious Commitment versus Religious Participation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 1102-1113.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090803/pdf/nihms590329.pdf
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9769-3


[27]   Pepfar (2006) Critical Intervention in the Focus Countries: Prevention. The Power of Partnerships: The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (Pepfar), 1-27.
http://www.pepfar.gov/documents/organization/81023.pdf

[28]   Berg, B.L. (2001) Qualitative Research, Message for the Social Sciences. 4th Edition, Allin and Bacon, Boston, 15-35.
https://mthoyibi.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/qualitative-research-methods-for-the-social-sciences__bruce-l-berg-2001.pdf

[29]   Bertram, D. (2006) Likert Scales: CPSC 681—Topic Report. Poincare, 1-11.
http://poincare.matf.bg.ac.rs/~kristina/topic-dane-likert.pdf

[30]   Boone, H.N. and Boone, D.A. (2012) Analyzing Likert Data. Journal of Extension, 50, Article No. 2TOT2.
http://www.joe.org/joe/2012april/pdf/JOE_v50_2tt2.pdf

[31]   Ciccio, L. and Sera, D. (2010) Assessing the Knowledge and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS among Youth in Northern Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Italian Journal of Tropical Medicine, 15, 29-34.
http://numat.jsi.com/Resources/Docs/NUMATAbstract_Ciccio_vol15_1.pdf

[32]   Guindo, O.M., Liu, A. and Haba, K. (2014) Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Youth towards HIV/AIDS in Mali, West Africa. International Journal of Advanced Physiology and Allied Sciences, 2, 12-23.

[33]   Singh, A. and Jain, S. (2009) Awareness of HIV/AIDS among School Adolescents in Banaskantha District of Gujarat. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, 32, 59-65.
http://medind.nic.in/hab/t09/i2/habt09i2p59.pdf

[34]   Vladicescu, N. (2012) HIV Knowledge, Attitude, Practice (KAP) Study on Teenagers with Parents Working Abroad in the Frame of a Fact Finding Mission (FFM) in NON-EU Countries and EU Border Areas. 2010-2012 Crossing Borders, Building Bridges: Qualitative Study Report, BORDERNETwork Work Package 4, SPI Forschung gGmbH Publishers, 1-52.
http://www.bordernet.eu/cms/media/uploads//pdf/BORDERNETwork_FFM_Moldova_2.pdf

[35]   Wodi, B.E. (2005) HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions among Adolescents in the River States of Nigeria. The International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 8, 86-94.
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ794072.pdf

[36]   William, T.A. (2013) Myths & Misconception among Young on Sex & HIV/AIDS—An Overview. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 3, 527-529.
https://www.worldwidejournals.com/ijar/file.php?val=December_2013_1385987268_62b5c_162.pdf

[37]   Ankukwe, C. (2006) Don’t Let Them Die: HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis and the Healthcare Crisis in Africa. Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd., Lon-don.

 
 
Top