OJBIPHY  Vol.6 No.3 , July 2016
Nature’s Particulate Matter with and without Charge and Travelling
Abstract: Natures and anthropogenic particulates can travel long distances on wind flows, but negative electrical charge due to friction can increase dispersion. Models for calculations of distance travelling of biological particulate matter with and without charge are never been calculated in a theoretical approach. Nor do we realize the fact that we can calculate actual distances if we take the charge on particles in account. Particles that travel through the air encounter friction. Friction can be described in two ways; either in a smooth constant way through the air with its viscous forces, or in a turbulent chaotic eddies and vortices and other flow instabilities. In case of only viscous forces are to be concerned, it can be described as a lower Reynolds number than one, while in all other setting it always must be described by Reynolds numbers larger than or equal to one. This article describes the calculated effects on particles, either in a low Reynolds number and thus as a Navier-Stokes equation or Stokes’ Law or, in case of non-laminar and complex forces in an equal or higher Reynolds number according to the third Law of Newton. In addition some striking examples of particle travelling are given with evidence of natural particulate matter long distance dispersion.
Cite this paper: Ursem, B. (2016) Nature’s Particulate Matter with and without Charge and Travelling. Open Journal of Biophysics, 6, 75-82. doi: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2016.63008.

[1]   Martin, M.D., Chamecky, M., Brush, G.S., Meneveau, C. and Parlange, M.B. (2009) Pollen Clumping and Wind Dispersal in an Invasive Angiosperm. American Journal of Botany, 96, 1703-1711.

[2]   Hinds, W.C. (1999) Aerosol Technology, Properties, Behaviour, and Measurement of Airborne Particles. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

[3]   Mariq, M. (2010) Characterization of Combustion and Engine Exhaust Particles. In: Marijnissen, J.C.M. and Gradón, L., Eds., Nanoparticles in Medicine and Environment, Springer, Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York, 19-37.

[4]   Wainwright, M., Wickramasinghe, N.C.,Narliakar, J.V. and Rajaratnem, P. (1999) Microorganisms Cultured from Atmospheric Air Samples Obtained at 41 km. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 218, 161-165.

[5]   Wainwright, M., Wickramasinghe, N.C., Narlikar, J.V. and Rajaratnam, P (2004) Are These Stratospheric Nanoparticles Bacteria? Microbiology, 150, 756-758.

[6]   Bigg, E.K. (1984) Particles in the Upper Atmosphere. Fundamental Studies and the Future of Science. University College Cardiff Press, Cardiff.

[7]   Harris, M.J., et al. (2002) The Detection of Living Cells in the Stratosphere. Proceedings SPIE Conference Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology IV, San Francisco, 4495, 192-198.

[8]   Griffin, D.W. (2004) Terrestrial Microorganisms at an Altitude of 20.000 m in Earth’s Atmosphere. Aerobiologia, 20, 135-140.

[9]   Mueller, M.H. and Van der Valk, A.G. (2002) The Potential Role of Ducks in Wetland Seed Dispersal. Wetlands, 22, 170-178.[0170:TPRODI]2.0.CO;2

[10]   Griffin, D.W., Kellogg, C.A., Garisson, V.H. and Shinn, E.A. (2002) The Global Transport of Dust. American Scientist, 90, 228-235.

[11]   Griffin, D.W., Garrison, V.H., Herman, J.R. and Shinn, E.A. (2001) African Desert Dust in the Caribbean Atmosphere: Microbiology and Public Health. Aerobiologia, 17, 203-213.

[12]   Hahn, M. (1909) Die Bestimmung und meteorologische Verwertung der Keimzahl in den hoheren Luftschichten. Nach vom Luftballon aus angestelten Biobachtungen. Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie, 1, 97-114.

[13]   Rogers, C.A. and Levetin, E. (1998) Evidence of Long-Distance Transport of Mountain Cedar Pollen into Tulsa, Oklahoma. International Journal of Biometeorology, 42, 65-72.