OALibJ  Vol.2 No.1 , January 2015
Magnitude and Factors Associated with Khat Chewing among Undergraduate Students of Adama University, Oromia National Regional State, January 2012
Abstract: Background: In some countries the use of Khat is widespread. The use or misuse of Khat is increasingly prevalent in Ethiopia. College and university students consume Khat to get mental alertness and to work hard in their academic endeavours. Most of the studies concerning Khat chewing were done on community-based studies and high school-based as well as psychiatric effects of Khat: less was done among university students. Objective: The study was aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of Khat chewing among undergraduate Adama University students. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire was conducted on population sample size determined by using single population proportion formula in January 2012. By using multi-stage sampling technique followed by simple random sampling, one department was selected from each school. Then, by simple random sampling, the sampled students were selected proportionally to their year of study and class size. Questions regarding demographic variables, academic and environmental factors were included in the survey. Data quality was controlled by pre-test, supervision, translation and training data collectors. Completed data were coded and entering into EPI info version 3.5.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Odds ratio with 95% CI and multiple logistic regression analysis were used. Results: A total of 728 students participated giving a response rate of 95.3%. The lifetime and current prevalence of Khat chewing were found to be 27.7% and 20.7% respectively. Being male (AOR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.10 - 3.47), monthly pocket money (AOR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01 - 2.28), family history of Khat chewing (AOR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.14 - 2.59) and friend chewing Khat (AOR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.12 - 2.58) were associated factors for Khat chewing (p < 0.05). Conclusion and Recommendation: The prevalence of Khat chewing among Adama University students was high compared to other studies done in similar settings. Therefore, there is a need for early intervention that targets university students to reduce impact of peer pressure, family history of Khat chewing and proper management of money. To realize this involvement and participation of policy makers, ministry of education, universities and parents are mandatory.
Cite this paper: Teshome, G. (2015) Magnitude and Factors Associated with Khat Chewing among Undergraduate Students of Adama University, Oromia National Regional State, January 2012. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-17. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1100877.

[1]   Gorfu, M. (2006) The Prevalence of Khat-Induced Psychotic Reactions among College Students: Case in Jimma University College of Agriculture. Ethiopia Journal of Education and Science, 2, 63-84.

[2]   National Drug Intelligence Center (2003) Khat (Catha edulis). Intelligence Bulletin. webcite

[3]   Beckerleg, S. (2008) Khat Special Edition Introduction. Substance Use and Misuse, 43, 749-761.

[4]   Getahun, W., Gedif, T. and Tesfaye, F. (2010) Regular Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing Is Associated with Elevated Diastolic Blood Pressure among Adults in Butajira, Ethiopia: A Comparative Study. BMC Public Health, 10, 390.

[5]   Kebede, Y., Abula, T., Ayele, B., Feleke, A., Degu, G., Kifle, A., et al. (2005) Substance Abuse Module. University of Gondar, Gondar.

[6]   Fantahun, M. and Chala, F. (1996) Sexual Behaviour, and Knowledge and Attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Out of School Youth in Bahir Dar Town. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 34, 233-242.

[7]   Abate, S. (2001) Determinants of High Risk Sexual Behavior for HIV/AIDS among Out of School Youth in Addis Ababa. MPH Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.

[8]   Kassaye, M., Hassen, S., Ghimja, F. and Teshome, T. (1999) Drug Use among High School Students in Addis Ababa and Butajira. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 13, 101-106.

[9]   Belew, M., Kebede, D., Kassaye, M. and Enquoselassie, F. (2000) The Magnitude of Khat Use and Its Association with Health, Nutrition and Socio-Economic Status. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 38, 11-26.

[10]   Alem, A., Kebede, D. and Kullgren, G. (1999) The Epidemiology of Problem Drinking in Butajira, Ethiopia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 397, 77-83.

[11]   Kebede, D., Alem, A., Mitike, G., Enquselassie, F., Berhane, F., Abebe, Y., et al. (2005) Khat and Alcohol Use and Risky Sex Behaviour among In-School and Out-of-School Youth in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 5, 109.

[12]   Weir, S. (1985) Qat in Yemen: Consumption and Social Changes. British Museum Press, London.

[13]   Hassan, N., Gunaid, A. and Murray-Lyon, I. (2007) Khat (Catha edulis): Health Aspects of Khat Chewing. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 13, 706-718.

[14]   Stevenson, M., Fitzgerald, J. and Banwell, C. (1996) Chewing as a Social Act: Cultural Displacement and Khat Consumption in the East African Communities of Melbourne. Drug and Alcohol Review, 15, 73-82.

[15]   World Health Organization (1998) Youth and HIV/AIDS: Forces for Change (Report). Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, 22-40.

[16]   Central Statistical Agency (2014) Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 0f 2011. Addis Ababa.

[17]   Kebede, Y. (2002) Cigarette Smoking and Khat Chewing among College Students in North West Ethiopia, 2001. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 16, 9-17.

[18]   Gelaw, Y. and Haile-Amlak, A. (2004) Khat Chewing and Its Socio-Demographic Correlates among the Staff of Jimma University. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 18, 179-184.

[19]   Kebede, Y. (2002) Cigarette Smoking and Khat Chewing among University Instructors in Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal, 79, 274-278.

[20]   Deressa, W. and Azazh, A. (2011) Substance Use and Its Predictors among Undergraduate Medical Students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 11, 660.

[21]   Redda, A.A., Moges, A., Biadgilign, S. and Wondmagegn, B.Y. (2012) Prevalence and Determinants of Khat Chewing among High School Students in Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. PloS ONE, 7, e33946.

[22]   Meressa, K., Mossie, A. and Gelaw, Y. (2009) Effect of Substance Use on Academic Achievement of Health Officer and Medical Students of Jimma University, South West Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 19, 155-163.

[23]   Odenwald, M., Neuner, F., Schauer, M., Elbert, T., Catani, C., Lingenfelder, B., et al. (2005) Khat Use as Risk Factor for Psychotic Disorders: A Cross-Sectional and Case-Control Study in Somalia. BMC Medicine, 3, 5-12.

[24]   Alemu, H., Mariam, D.H., Belay, K.A. and Davey, G. (2007) Factors Predisposing Out-of-School Youths to HIV/AIDS-Related Risky Sexual Behaviour in Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Health Population Nutrition, 25, 344-350.

[25]   Damena, T., Mossie, A. and Tesfaye, M. (2011) Khat Chewing and Mental Distress: A Community Based Study, in Jimma City, Southern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 21, 37-45.

[26]   Tesfaye, F., Byass, P., Berhane, Y., Bonita, R. and Wall, S. (2008) Association of Smoking and Khat Use with High BP among Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006. Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 5, A89.

[27]   Mossie, A. (2002) The Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Khat Chewing in Jimma Town, South Western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Science, 12, 69-80.

[28]   Negussie, B. (2012) Substance Use among High School Students in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. Harar Bulletin of Health Sciences, 4, 38-52.

[29]   Milat, W.A., Salih, M.A., Bani, I.A. and Ageely, H.M. (2005) Jazan Need Assessment Health Survey. Final Report for Project No (636/425) 2005, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan King Abdulaziz University, Jazan.

[30]   Elisanosi, R., Bani, I., Ageely, H., Milaat, W., Eli-Najjar, M., Makeen, A., et al. (2011) Socio-Medical Problems of the Habituation of Khat Chewing in Jazan Region in Southern Saud Arabia. European Journal of Scientific Research, 63, 122-133.

[31]   Adugna, F., Jira, C. and Molla, T. (1994) Khat Chewing among Agaro Secondary School Students, Agaro, South-Western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 32, 161-166.

[32]   Zein, A. (1988) Polydrug Abuse among Ethiopian University Students with Particular Reference to Khat (Catha edulis). Journal of Tropical Medicine Hygiene, 91, 71-75.

[33]   Abebe, D., Debella, A., Dejene, A., Degefa, A., Abebe, A., Urga, K., et al. (2005) Khat Chewing Habit as a Possible Risk Behaviour for HIV Infection: A Case-Control Study. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 19, 174-181.

[34]   Seme, A., Mariam, D.H. and Worku, A. (2005) The Association between Substance Abuse and HIV Infection among People Visiting HIV Counselling and Testing Centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 19, 116-125.

[35]   Oromia Regional State Adama City Administrative Revenue Enhancement Plan, March 2010, Adama.