Back
 AS  Vol.7 No.7 , July 2016
Effects of Climate and Agricultural Practices on Temporal Progress of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Soybean in Brazil
Abstract: Currently the soybean crop is affected by the white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). The disease can reduce the crop yield and quality and decrease the prices of agricultural lands. The aim of the current research was to assess epidemiology of white mold on soybean crop grown at Arapoti, PR, Brazil, utilizing data related to agricultural practices and local meteorological factors. The experiment was conducted in a naturally infested area. The soybean crop was sown on October 18th, 2011. The experimental design adopted herein was a randomized block in a factorial combination with 4 row spacings (0.35, 0.45, 0.60, 0.75 m) and 4 plant populations (150, 200, 250, 300 thousand plants per hectare) and 4 replications. The temporal analysis of the epidemic was evaluated using mathematical models, such as Logistics, Monomolecular and Gompertz, in order to determine the best model that described the progress of the disease as a function of local meteorological elements. For the incidence data it has been shown that both logistic and monomolecular models were those that were best fitted to the experimental data. For severity, the best model related to the experimental data was the logistic one. Either for incidence or for severity, air temperature was considered to be the environmental factor most affecting the progress of the disease. The variability in the apparent infection rates of white mold on soybean was not affected by different row spacings and plant populations; therefore, suggesting that macroclimatic variations prevailed in such a fashion to mitigate the effect of cultural practices adopted in the field.
Cite this paper: Beruski, G. , Pereira, A. , Jaccoud-Filho, D. , Sartori, F. and Sentelhas, P. (2016) Effects of Climate and Agricultural Practices on Temporal Progress of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Soybean in Brazil. Agricultural Sciences, 7, 425-438. doi: 10.4236/as.2016.77044.
References

[1]   Morrall, R.A.A., Duczek, I.J., McKenzie, D.L. and McGee, D.C. (1976) Some Aspects of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Saskatchewan, 1970-75. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 56, 56-62.

[2]   Danielson, G.A., Nelson, B.D. and Helms, T.C. (2004) Effect of Sclerotinia Stem Rot on Yield of Soybean Inoculated at Different Growth Stages. Plant Disease, 88, 297-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.3.297

[3]   Jaccoud Filho, D.S., Manosso Neto, M.O., Vrisman, C.M., Henneberg, L., Grabicoski, E.M.G., Pierre, M.L.C., Berger Neto, A., Sartori, F.F., Demarch, V.B. and Rocha, C.H. (2010) Analyses, Distribuition and Quantification of White Mold in Different Growing Regions of Paraná State. In: Dalla Pria, M., Ed., Soybean Research Meeting of Brazil’s Central Region, Embrapa-Soybean, Londrina, 226-228.

[4]   Harikrishnan, R. and Del Río, L.E. (2008) A Logistic Regression Model for Predicting Risk of White Mold Incidence on Dry Bean in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 92, 42-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-92-1-0042

[5]   Hartman, G.L., Kull, L. and Huang, Y.H. (1998) Occurrence of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Soybeans Fields in East-Central Illinois and Enumeration of Inocula in Soybean Seed Lots. Plant Disease, 82, 560-564.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.5.560

[6]   Jeger, M.J. (1986) Asymptotic Behavior and Threshold Criteria in Model Plant Disease Epidemics. Plant Pathology, 35, 355-361.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.1986.tb02026.x

[7]   Mila, A.L., Carriquiry, A.L. and Yang, X.B. (2004) Logistic Regression Modeling of Prevalence of Soybean Sclerotinia Stem Rot in the North-Central United States. Phytopathology, 94, 102-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.1.102

[8]   Bergamin Filho, A. and Amorim, L. (1996) Tropical Plant Disease: Epidemiology and Economic Control. Ceres, São Paulo.

[9]   Berger, R.D. (1981) Comparison of the Gompertz and Logistic Equations to Describe Plant Disease Progress. Phytopathology, 71, 716-719.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-71-716

[10]   Campbell, C.L. and Madden, L.V. (1990) Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[11]   Vanderplank, J.E. (1963) Plant Disease: Epidemics and Control. Academic Press, New York, 349 p.

[12]   Nelson, B.D., Hertsgaard, D.M. and Holley, R.C. (1989) Disease Progress of Sclerotinia Wilt of Sunflowers at Varying Plant Population, Inoculum Densities and Environments. Phytopathology, 79, 1358-1363.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-79-1358

[13]   Aghajani, M.A., Safaie, N. and Alizadeh, A. (2010) Disease Progress Curves of Sclerotinia Stem Root of Canola Epidemics in Goletan Province, Iran. Journal Agriculture Science Technology, 12, 471-478.

[14]   Alvares, C.A, Stape, J.L., Sentelhas, P.C., Gonçalves, J.L.M. and Sparovek, G. (2014) Köppen’s Climate Classification Map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 22, 711-728.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507

[15]   Sentelhas, P.C., Dalla Marta, A., Orlandini, S., Santos, E.A., Gillespie, T.J. and Gleason, M.L. (2008) Suitability of Relative Humidity as an Estimator of Leaf Wetness Duration. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 48, 392-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.09.011

[16]   Juliatti, F.C., Crato, F.F., Juliatti, C., Couto, K.R. and Juliatti, B.C.M. (2013) Diagramatic Scale to Evaluation of White Mold on Soybean. Bioscience Journal, 29, 676-680.

[17]   Bergamin Filho, A. (1995) Disease Curve Progress. In: Bergamin Filho, A., Kimati, H. and Amorim, L., Eds., Manual of Phytopathology—Principles and Concepts, 4, Ceres, São Paulo, 627-646.

[18]   Lulu, J. (2008) Leaf Wetness Duration in a “Niagara Rosada” Vineyard and Its Relationships with Downy Mildew (Plasmopara viticola) Occurrence. PhD Thesis, in Agricultural Environmental Physics, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture—University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 188 p.

[19]   Pedro Jr., M.J. (1983) Effects of Meteorological Factors on the Development of Coffea Leaf Rust. EPPO Bulletin, 13, 153-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.1983.tb01592.x

[20]   Weiss, A., Kerr, E.D. and Steadman, J.R. (1980) Temperature and Moisture Influences on Development of White Mold Disease (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) on Great Northern Beans. Plant Disease, 64, 757-759.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PD-64-757

[21]   Fiorine, R.A. (2006) Agrometeorological Warning-System for Controlling Fungical Diseases in “Niagara Rosada” Table—Grapes. Master Dissertation, in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture, Agronomic Institute of Campinas, 74 p.

[22]   Abawi, G.S. and Grogan, R.G. (1979) Epidemiology of Diseases Caused by Sclerotinia Species. Phytopathology, 69, 899-904.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-69-899

[23]   Steadman, J.R. (1983) White Mold—A Serious Yield Limiting Disease of Bean. Plant Disease, 67, 346-350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PD-67-346

[24]   Matheron, M.E. and Porchas, M. (2005) Influence of Soil Temperature and Moisture on Eruptive Germination and Viability of Sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 89, 50-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PD-89-0050

[25]   Workneh, F. and Yang, X.B. (2000) Prevalence of Sclerotinia Stem Rot of Soybean in North Central United States in Relation to Tillage, Climate, and Latitudinal Positions. Phytopathology, 90, 1375-1382.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2000.90.12.1375

[26]   Boland, G.J. and Hall, R. (1988) Epidemiology of Sclerotinia Stem Rot of Soybean in Ontario. Phytopathology, 78, 1241-1245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-78-1241

[27]   Pennypacker, B.W. and Risius, M.L. (1999) Environmental Sensitivity of Soybean Cultivars Response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Phytopathology, 89, 618-622.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.1999.89.8.618

[28]   Huber, L. and Gillespie, T.J. (1992) Modeling Leaf Wetness in Relation to Plant Disease Epidemiology. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 30, 553-577.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.py.30.090192.003005

[29]   Sutton, J.C., Gillespie, T.J. and Hildebrans, P.D. (1984) Monitoring Weather Factors in Relation to Plant Disease. Plant Disease, 68, 78-84.

[30]   Monteiro, J.E.B.A., Sentelhas, P.C. and Chiavegato, E.J. (2004) Cotton Crop Microclimate in Three Plant Population Densities. Brazilian Journal of Agrometeorology, 12, 257-264.

 
 
Top