CE  Vol.2 No.3 , August 2011
Students’ Metaphors for Defining Their Learning Experience with Audio-Visible versus Invisible Authors. Results from a Case Study in a Social Science Discipline
ABSTRACT
This article summarizes an instructional experience designed and conducted at the University of Lugano – Communication Sciences – (Switzerland) within a Political Theory’s freshmen course, which involved disciplines like: philosophy, political science and epistemology. We offered students two types of authors to be learned: one through a multimedia video interview in combination with written texts of these authors, defined as the audio-visible authors, and one type of author offered only through a text-based format (the invisible author). We gathered quantitative data (students’ performance on their written exam compositions, their grades; the number of written words they wrote; and the number of times students mentioned the two types of authors in their written compositions). We also collected qualitative data (through semi-structured interviews and thinking aloud protocols), analyzing the metaphors students used to define the reading and learning experience with the audio-visible and the invisible authors. Results show that students perform better when the author to be studied is offered with more media instructional supports, they tend to establish a social relationship with the author, and the quality of their critical thinking and the level of interest in a new subject both increase. The article is divided in three parts: we will first give some definitions of what a metaphor is; second, we will describe our case study and the results of the data analysis; third, we will discuss the results.

Cite this paper
nullInglese, T. and Rigotti, F. (2011) Students’ Metaphors for Defining Their Learning Experience with Audio-Visible versus Invisible Authors. Results from a Case Study in a Social Science Discipline. Creative Education, 2, 181-188. doi: 10.4236/ce.2011.23025.
References
[1]   Black, M. (1993). More about metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 19-41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]   Brandt, D. (1990). Literacy as involvement. The acts of writers, readers, and texts. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press.

[3]   Chun, D. (1988). The Neglected role of intonation in communicative competence and proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 72, 295-303. doi:10.2307/327507

[4]   Collenberg-Plotnikov, B. (2006). Iconic turn. Information Philosophie, 34, 109-122.

[5]   Deleuze, G. (1988). Le Pli. Leibniz et le baroque. Paris: Les éditions de Minuit.

[6]   Feyerabend, P. (1981). La scienza in una società libera. Milano: Feltrinelli.

[7]   Ginzburg, C. (1976). High and low. the theme of forbidden knowledge in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Past and Present, 73, 28-41. doi:10.1093/past/73.1.28

[8]   Glucksberg, S., & Keysar, B. (1993). How metaphors work. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 401-424). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[9]   Haynes, F. (1978). Metaphoric understanding. Journal of aesthetic education, 12, 99-115. doi:10.2307/3332050

[10]   Haynes, F. (1975). Metaphor as interactive. Educational theory, 25, 272-277. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5446.1975.tb00691.x

[11]   Hegel, G. (1970). Vorlesungen über die ?sthetik I. In E. Moldenhauer (Ed.), Werke (p. 518). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.

[12]   Heidegger, M. (1985). Unterweg zur Sprache. In Klosterman (Ed.), Gesammelte Ausgabe (p. 165), Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.

[13]   Inglese, T., Mayer, R. E., & Rigotti, F. (2007). Pedagogic role of audiovisual TV archives in college classes: Can visible authors reduce the learning gap between native and non-native language speakers? Learning and Instruction, 17, 67-77. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.11.006

[14]   Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.

[15]   Lévi-Strauss, C. (2002). Razza e storia, Razza e cultura. Torino: Einaudi.

[16]   Lloyd, G. (1966). Polarity and analogy. two types of argumentation in early greek thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[17]   Martens, E. (2000). Der Faden der Ariadne, oder warum alle Philosophen spinnen. Leipzig: Reclam.

[18]   Mayer, R. E. (1993). The instructive metaphor: Metaphoric aids to students’ understanding of science. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 561-578). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[19]   Ortony, A. (1975). Why metaphors are necessary and not just nice? Educational theory, 25, 45-53. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5446.1975.tb00666.x

[20]   Ortony, A. (Ed.). (1993). Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[21]   Peil, D. (1993). Zum Problem des Bildfeldbegriffs. In P.Lutzeier (Ed.), Studien zur Wortfeldtheorie/Studies in Lexical Field Theorie (185-202). Tübingen.

[22]   Petrie, H., & Oshlag, R. (1993). Metaphor and learning. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 579-609). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[23]   Ricoeur, P. (1985). La métaphore vive. Paris: Seuil.

[24]   Rigotti, F. (1995). The influence of rhetoric on the ethics. Zeitschrift fuer philosophische Forschung, 49, 241-258.

[25]   Rigotti, F. (1996). Cultura animi, cultura dei: Worship as agriculture in early Christianity. Duisburg: Gerhard-Mercator Universitaet Gesamthochschule Duisburg—LAUD.

[26]   Rigotti, F. (2002). Il filo del pensiero. Leggere, scrivere, pensare. Bologna: Il Mulino.

[27]   Rigotti, F. (2003). Le parole della democrazia. Equilibri. Rivista per lo sviluppo sostenibile, 2.

[28]   Rigotti, F. (2007). Spiegare la piega. Il pensiero delle cose. Milano: Apogeo, 60-68.

[29]   Sapir, D., & Crocker, J.C. (1977). The social use of metaphor, University of Pennsylvania Press.

[30]   Semprini, A. (2000). Multiculturalismo. La sfida della diversità nelle società contemporanee. Milano:Franco Angeli.

[31]   Sticht, T. (1993). Educational uses of metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 621-632). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 
 
Top