Back
 MSA  Vol.7 No.6 , June 2016
Electrical Homo-Junction Delineation Techniques: A Comparative Study
Abstract: In active semiconductor devices, the junction characteristics are critical for the electrical performance. As an alternative of the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques which provide unique junction characterization, other methods are dedicated for the delineation of the electrical junction such as the wet chemical etching, the electrochemical plating method, the Seebeck effect imaging (SEI) method, the electron-beam induced current (EBIC) technique and the secondary electron potential contrast (SEPC) method. The aim of this paper is in the one hand to compare these five techniques in term of sample preparation, spatial application range, spatial resolution, simplicity and information displayed. In the other hand, this review aims to provide some guidelines for the appropriate delineation method(s) selection. It was confirmed that chemical based techniques are the simplest junction delineation methods but exhibit some drawbacks in term of spatial resolution and reproducibility. Despite of a limited spatial resolution, it was evidenced that EBIC can provide accurate electrical characterization of the junction. Finally, it was demonstrated that SEPC is the most promising technique providing the higher spatial resolution. The effect of the sample preparation method has been described. Even if the comparison was mainly based on homo-micro-Silicon junctions (n-p and n-p-n-p), the results were also discussed for short SiC junctions. The importance of the analysis context was considered in this paper and analysis flow was suggested for specific analysis cases.
Cite this paper: Vivet, N. , Diogo, M. , Aubert, A. , Moinet, T. , Allanic, F. , Perdreau, R. and Rebrassé, J. (2016) Electrical Homo-Junction Delineation Techniques: A Comparative Study. Materials Sciences and Applications, 7, 326-347. doi: 10.4236/msa.2016.76030.
References

[1]   Schmich, E., Lautenschager, H., Frieß, T., Trenkle, F., Schillinger, N. and Reber, S. (2008) N-Type Emitter Epitaxy for Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 16, 159-170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pip.783

[2]   Nonnenmacher, M., O’Boyle, M.P. and Wickramasinghe, H.K. (1991) Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 58, 2921-2923.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.105227

[3]   Kikukawa, A., Hosaka, S. and Imura, R. (1995) Silicon pn Junction Imaging and Characterizations Using Sensitivity Enhanced Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 66, 3510-3512.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.113780

[4]   Williams, C.C. (1999) Two-Dimensional Dopant Profiling by Scanning Capacitance Microscopy. Annual Review of Materials Science, 29, 471-504.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.matsci.29.1.471

[5]   Dau, W.D., Schwander, P., Baumann, F.H., Hoppner, W. and Ourmazd, A. (1999) Two-Dimensional Mapping of the Electrostatic Potential in Transistors by Electron Holography. Physical Review Letters, 82, 2614-2617.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.2614

[6]   Twitchett, A.C., Yates, T.J.V., Dunin-Borkowski, R.E., Newcomb, S.B. and Midgley, P.A. (2006) Three-Dimensional Electrostatic Potential of a Si p-n Junction Revealed Using Tomographic Electron Holography. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 26, 29-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/26/1/007

[7]   Turner, D.R. (1959) Junction Delineation on Silicon in Electrochemical Displacement Plating Solutions. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 106, 701-705.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.2427475

[8]   Ratcliffen, S. and Hughes, J.E. (1961) The Copper Staining of p-n-p Alloyed Junction Transistor Sections. British Journal of Applied Physics, 12, 193-194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0508-3443/12/4/316

[9]   Cole, E.I. (2005) Beam-Based Defect Localization Methods. In: Electronic Device Failure Analysis Society Desk Reference Committee, Microelectronics Failure Analysis Desk Reference, 5th Edition, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 406-416.

[10]   Parish, C., Batchelor, D., Progl, C. and Russell, P. (2007) Tutorial: Electron Beam-Induced Current in the Scanning Electron Microscope. Microscopy and Analysis, 21, 11-13.

[11]   Beck, F. and Wilson, S.S. (1998) Integrated Circuit Failure Analysis: A Guide to Preparation Techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 57-77.

[12]   Kulkarni, M.S. (2003) A Review and Unifying Analysis of Defect Decoration and Surface Polishing by Chemical Etching in Silicon Processing. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 42, 2558-2588.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie020716y

[13]   Mills, T. and Sponheimer, E.W. (1982) Precision VLSI Cross-Sectioning and Staining. 20th Annual Reliability Physics Symposium, San Diego, March 1982, 214-220.

[14]   Hu, S.M. and Kerr, D.R. (1967) Observation of Etching of n-Type Silicon in Aqueous HF Solutions. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 114, 414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.2426612

[15]   Madou, M.J. (2009) Manufacturing Techniques for Microfabrication and Nanotechnology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 240.

[16]   Subramanyan, R., Massoud, H.Z. and Fair, R.B. (1988) Accurate Junction Depth Measurements Using Chemical Staining, Semiconductor Fabrication: Technology and Metrology. ASTM STP, Philadelphia, 990.

[17]   Spinella, C. (1997) Chemical and Electrochemical Staining for Two-Dimensional Dopant Concentration Profiling on ULSI Silicon Devices. MRS Proceedings, 469, 323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/proc-469-323

[18]   Wu, C.P., Douglas, E.C., Mueller, C.W. and Williams, R. (1979) Techniques for Lapping and Staining Ion-Implanted Layers. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 126, 1982-1988.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.2128839

[19]   Lehmann, V. (2002) Electrochemistry of Silicon, Instrumentation, Science, Materials and Applications. Wiley-Vch, Weinheim.

[20]   Nizou, S., Vervisch, V., Etienne, H., Ziti, M., Torregrosa, F., Roux, L., Roy, M. and Alquier, D. (2006) Deep Trench Doping by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Silicon. AIP Conference Proceedings, 866, 229-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2401501

[21]   Yamauchi, T., Tsumori, Y., Nakashizu, T., Esaka, H., Takao, S. and Shinoyama, S. (1992) Application of Copper- Decoration Method to Characterize As-Grown Czochralski-Silicon. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 31, L439.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.31.L439

[22]   Yamashita, O. (2004) Effect of Metal Electrode on Seebeck Coefficient of p- and n-Type Si Thermoelectric. Journal of Applied Physics, 95, 178-183.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1630361

[23]   Wagner, M. (2007) Simulation of Thermoelectric Devices. Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University, Austria.
http://www.iue.tuwien.ac.at/phd/mwagner/

[24]   Hontgas, C.H. (2007) Investigation of PN Junction Delineation Resolution Using Electron Beam Induced Current. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Central Florida, Orlando.

[25]   Peng, L.-M., Chen, Q., Liang, X.L., Gao, S., Wang, J.Y., Kleindiek, S. and Tai, S.W. (2004) Performing Probe Experiments in the SEM. Micron, 35, 495-502.

[26]   Sealy, C.P., Castell, M.R. and Wilshaw, P.R. (2000) Mechanisms for Secondary Electron Dopant Contrast in the SEM. Journal of Electron Microscopy, 49, 311-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jmicro.a023811

[27]   Chee, A.K.W., Broom, R.F., Humphreys, C.J. and Bosch, E.G.T. (2011) A Quantitative Model for Doping Contrast in the Scanning Electron Microscope Using Calculated Potential Distributions and Monte Carlo Simulations. Journal of Applied Physics, 109, 013109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3524186

[28]   Buzzo, M., Ciappa, M., Millan, J., Godignon, P. and Fichtner, W. (2007) Two-Dimensional Dopant Imaging of Silicon Carbide Devices by Secondary Electron Potential Contrast. Microelectronic Engineering, 84, 413-417.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mee.2006.10.055

[29]   Buzzo, M., Ciappa, M. and Fichtner, W. (2006) Imaging and Dopant Profiling of Silicon Carbide Devices by Secondary Electron Dopant Contrast. IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, 6, 203-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TDMR.2006.876605

[30]   Hyun, M.S., Yoo, J.H., Kwak, N.-Y., Kim, W., Rhee, C.K. and Yang, J.-M. (2012) Precise Comparison of Two Dimensional Dopant Profiles Measured by Low Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Holography Techniques. Applied Microscopy, 42, 158-163.

[31]   Buzzo, M., Ciappa, M., Stangoni, M. and Fichtner, W. (2005) Two-Dimensional Dopant Profiling and Imaging of 4H Silicon Carbide Devices by Secondary Electron Potential Contrast. Microelectronics Reliability, 45, 1499-1504.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microrel.2005.07.069

[32]   Glowacki, A. and Boit, C. (2005) Characterization of Thermoelectric Devices in ICS as Stimulated by a Scanning Laser Beam. 43rd Annual IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, San Jose, 17-21 April 2005, 450-457.

[33]   Zhuang, D. and Edgar, J.H. (2005) Wet Etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: A Review. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 48, 1-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2004.11.002

[34]   Hsieh, Y.W., Russell, J.D. and Chen, P.Y. (2008) SEM Si Doping Contrast Enhancement Using Sample Charging. ISTFA, Portland, 2-6 November 2008, 510-514.

[35]   Kazemian, P., Mentink, S.A., Rodenburg, C. and Humphreys, C.J. (2007) Quantitative Secondary Electron Energy Filtering in a Scanning Electron Microscope and Its Applications. Ultramicroscopy, 107, 140-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2006.06.003

[36]   Ong, V.K.S. and Wu, D. (2001) Determination of Diffusion Length from within a Confined Region with the Use of EBIC. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 48, 332-337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/16.902735

[37]   Elliot, S.L., Broom, R.F. and Humphreys, C.J. (2002) Dopant Profiling with the Scanning Electron Microscope—A Study of Si. Journal of Applied Physics, 91, 9116-9122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1476968

[38]   Tsurumi, D., Hamada, K. and Kawasaki, Y. (2012) Energy-Filtered Secondary-Electron Imaging for Nanoscale Dopant Mapping by Applying a Reverse Bias Voltage. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 51, 106503.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7567/JJAP.51.106503

 
 
Top