JWARP  Vol.8 No.7 , June 2016
Reciprocal Analysis of Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes in a Forest Region Using Single Height Temperature and Humidity Based on the Bowen Ratio Concept
Abstract: Evapotranspiration in forests has been researched for a long time because it serves an important role in water resource issues and biomass production. By applying the reciprocal analysis based on the Bowen ratio concept to the canopy surface, the sum result of sensible and latent heat fluxes, i.e., actual evapotranspiration (ET), is estimated from engineering aspect using the net radiation (Rn) and heat flux into the ground (G). The new method uses air temperature and humidity at a single height by determining the relative humidity (rehs) using the canopy temperature (Ts). The validity of the method is confirmed by the latent heat flux (lE) and sensible heat flux (H) observed by mean of eddy covariance method. The heat imbalance is corrected by multiple regression analysis. The temporal change of lE and H at the canopy surface is clarified using hourly and yearly data. Furthermore, the observed and estimated monthly evapotranspiration of the sites are compared. The research is conducted using hourly data and the validation of the method is conducted using observed covariance at five sites in the world using FLUXNET.
Cite this paper: Maruyama, T. and Segawa, M. (2016) Reciprocal Analysis of Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes in a Forest Region Using Single Height Temperature and Humidity Based on the Bowen Ratio Concept. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 724-742. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.87059.

[1]   Kondo, J. (1996) Meteorology on Water Environment, 5. Wind and Its Turbulence near Soil Surface. Asakura Publishing Ltd., Tokyo, 99-127.

[2]   Allen, R. (2008) Quality Assessment of Weather Data and Micrometeorological Flux Impact on Evapotranspiration Calculation. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 64, 191-204.

[3]   Kondo, J. (1996) Meteorology on Water Environment, 6. Water and Heat Balance on Soil Surface. Asakura Publishing Ltd., Tokyo, 128-159.

[4]   Morton, F.I. (1978) Estimating Evapotranspiration from Potential Evaporation. Journal of Hydrology, 38, 1-32.

[5]   Brutsaert, W. and Striker, H. (1979) An Advection Aridity Approach to Estimate Actual Regional Evapotranspiration, Water Resources Reseach, 15, 443-450.

[6]   Otsuki, K., Mitsuno, T. and Maruyama, T. (1984) Comparison between Water Budget and Complementary Relationship Estimates of Catchment Evapotranspiration Studies on the Estimation of actual Evapotranspiration (II). Transactions of The Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage and Reclamation Engineering, 112, 17-23.

[7]   Preistley, C.H.B. and Taylor, R.J. (1972) On the Assessment oh Surface Heat Flux and Evaporation Using Large-Scale Parameters. Monthly Weather Review, 100, 81-92.<0081:OTAOSH>2.3.CO;2

[8]   Rambal, S. and Ourcival, J.-M. (2008) Puechabon (FR-Pue) European Fluxes Database Cluster L2 Data.

[9]   Saigusa, N., Hirata, R. and Hirano, T. (2002) Tomakomai Flux Research Site (TMK), AsiaFlux Data.

[10]   Guan, D.X., Zhang, J.H. and Wu, J.B. (2005) Changbaishan Site (CBS) AsiaFlux Data.

[11]   Clark, K.L. (2012) Silas Little Experimental Forest (US-Slt) AmeriFlux L2 Data.

[12]   Bolstad, Paul, Desai, Ankur (2005) Willow Creek (US-WCr) AmeriFlux L2 Data.

[13]   Wilson, K., Goldstein, A., Falge, E., Abbinet, M., Baldocchi, D., Berbingier, C., Ceulemans, R., Dolman, H., Field, C., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Law, B., Kowalski, A., Meyers, T., Moncrieff, J., Monson, R., Oechel, W., Tenhunen, J., Valentini, R. and Verma, S. (2002) Energy Balance Closure at FLUXNET Sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 113, 223-243.

[14]   Twine, T.E., Kustas, W.P., Norman, J.M., Cook, D.R., Houser, P.R., Meyers, T.P., Prueger, J.H., Staks, P.J. and Wesely, M.L. (2000) Correcting Eddy-Covariance Flux under Estimates over a Grassland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 103, 279-300.

[15]   Kondo, J. (2015) Heat Balance and Climate on Soil Surface.

[16]   Urano S.-I. (2012) Study on Bowen Ratios in the Penman and Priestly·Taylor Equations. Geophysical Bulletin of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 15, 91-107.

[17]   Frank, J.M., William, J.M, Edoward, S., Herb, A.Z. and Brent, E.E. (2016) All Sonic Anemometers Need to Correct for Transducer and Structural Shadowing in Their Velocity Measurement. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 33, 149-167.