JEP  Vol.2 No.6 , August 2011
Relationship Between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Bottom Sediments and the Clam, Galatea Paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana
Abstract: This research was carried out at two locations, Ada and Aveglo at the Volta Estuary, Ghana to evaluate the importance of sediments as regulatory media in controlling the levels of four metals, Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe) and Mercury (Hg) in the tissues of the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) and to investigate the possible relationships between the concentrations of the metals in the sediments and the clams. The clams were categorized into three size classes as follows: small (25 - 40 mm), medium (41 - 55 mm), and large (above 55 mm). To understand the possible relationships between the concentrations of the studied metals in the sediments and in the tissues of the three clam size classes, the monthly concentrations of the studied metals were graphed and subjected to Pearson correlation analyses (p < 0.05) to identify metal accumulation patterns and determine whether or not positive relationship patterns existed between the concentrations in the clams and sediment samples. The correlation revealed no simple linear relationships between the concentrations of four heavy metals in the clam tissues and the sediments at the two sampling stations although some distinct trends were observed. Mn concentrations in the clams and sediments from the two stations showed some clear positive relationship patterns with some increments in monthly sediment concentrations resulting in increments in clam tissue concentrations. This relationship though, was not too clear-cut.
Cite this paper: nullH. Madkour, K. Obirikorang, S. Amisah, F. Otchere and D. Adjei-Boateng, "Relationship Between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Bottom Sediments and the Clam, Galatea Paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 6, 2011, pp. 720-728. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.26083.

[1]   W. C. Renfro, “Transfer of 65Zn from Sediments by Marine Polycheate Worm,” Marine Biology, Vol. 21, 1983, pp. 305-316. doi:10.1007/BF00381087

[2]   K. L. Spencer and C. L. MacLeod, “Distribution and Partitioning of Heavy Metals in Estuarine Sediment Cores and Implications for the Use of Sediment Quality Standards,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 6, 2002, pp. 989-998.

[3]   S. N. Luoma, “Can We Determine the Biological Availability of Sediment-Bound Trace Metals,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 176-177, 1989, pp. 379-396. doi:10.1007/BF00026572

[4]   C. A. Davies, K. Tomlinson and T. Stephenson, “Heavy Metals in River Tees Estuary Sediments,” Environmental Technology, Vol. 12, 1991, pp. 961-972. doi:10.1080/09593339109385095

[5]   J. S. Chang, K. C. Yu, L. J. Tsai and S. T. Ho, “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Bottom Sediment of Yenshui River, Taiwan,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 11, 1998, pp. 159-167. doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(98)00651-9

[6]   A. J. Gunther, J. A. Davis, D. D. Hardin, J. Gold, D. Bell, J. R. Cricks, G. Scelfo and M. Stephenson, “Long-Term Bioaccumulation Monitoring with Transplanted Bivalves in the San Francisco Estuary,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1999, pp. 170-180. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00185-4

[7]   C. Nasci, L. Da Ros, G. Campesan, E. S. Van Vleet, M. Salizzato, L. Sperni and B. Pavoi, “Clam Transplantation and Stress-Related Biomarkers as Useful Tools for Assessing Water Quality in Coastal Environments,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1999, pp. 255-260. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00094-6

[8]   F. Olivier, M. Ridd and D. Klumpp, “The Use of Transplanted Cultured Tropical Oysters (Saccostrea Commercialis) to Monitor Cd Levels in North Queensland Coastal Waters (Australia),” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 44, No. 10, 2002, pp. 1051-1062. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00157-1

[9]   L. A. Cruz-Rodriguez and F.-L. E. Chu, “HSP70 Levels in Oyster Crassostrea Virginica Exposed to Cadmium Sorbed to Algal Food and Suspended Clay Particles,” In: A. Villalba, B. Reguera, J.L. Romalde and R. Beiras, Eds., Molluscan Shellfish Safety, Consellería de Pesca e Asuntos Marítimos da Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, ISBN: 84-453-3638-X, 2003, pp. 555-567.

[10]   B. S. Moses, “Growth, Biomass, Mortality, Production and Potential Yield of the West African Clam, Egeria Radiata(Lamack) (Lamellibranchia, Donacidae) in the Cross River System, Nigeria,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 196, 1990, pp. 1-15. doi:10.1007/BF00008888

[11]   K. A. Obirikorang, D. Adjei-Boateng and S. Amisah, “Consumption of the Clam, Galatea Paradoxa (Born 1778) in Ghana: Human Health Implications with Reference to Heavy Metals,” Water Qual Expo Health Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 1, 2009, pp. 191-201.

[12]   M. K. Amador, “A Review of the Volta Clam, Egeria radiata Fishery in the Lower Volta,” BSc. Thesis, Department of Fisheries and Watershed Mgt, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana, 1997.

[13]   United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Sediment Sampling, SOP#: 2016, 1994.

[14]   D. J. H. Phillips and W. W. S. Yim, “A Comparative Evaluation of Oysters, Mussels and Sediments as Indicators of Trace Metals in Hong Kong Waters,” Marine Ecology-Progress Series, Vol. 6, 1981, pp. 285-293. doi:10.3354/meps006285

[15]   S. T. Chiu, F. S. Lam, W. L. Tze, C. W. Chau and D. Y. Ye,“Trace Metals in Mussel from Mariculture Zones, Hong Kong,” Chemosphere, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 101-108. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00395-1

[16]   United Kingdom Environmental Agency, “Using science to Create a Better Place—Environmental Quality Standards for Trace Metals in the Aquatic Environment,” Science Report-SC030194, 2008.

[17]   Q. Jin, F. Liang, H. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Huan and D. Song, “Application of Microwave Techniques in Analytical Chemistry,” TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 18, No. 7, 1999, pp. 479-484. doi:10.1016/S0165-9936(99)00110-7

[18]   F. A. Otchere, “Heavy Metals Concentrations and Burden in the Bivalves (Anadara (Senilia) Senilis, Crassostrea tulipa and Perna Perna) from Lagoons in Ghana: Model to Describe Mechanism of Accumulation/Excretion,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2003, pp. 280-287.

[19]   G. Roesijiadi and W. E. Robinson, “Metal Regulation in Aquatic Animals: Mechanism of Uptake, Accumulation and Release,” In: D. C. Malins and G. G. Ostrander, Eds., Aquatic Toxicology (Molecular, Biochemical and Cellular Perspectives), Lewis Publishers, London, 1994, pp 539.

[20]   W. Huanxin, Z. Lejun and B. J. Presley, “Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Tissue and Shell,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 39, No. 11, 1999, pp. 1216-1226.

[21]   D. Connell, P. Lam, B. Richardson and R. Wu, “Introduction to Ecotoxicology,” Blackwell Science Ltd, UK, 1999, p. 71.

[22]   J. C. Amiard, C. Amiard-Triquet, B. Berthet and C. Metayer, “Comparative Study of the Patterns of Bioaccumulation of Essential (Cu, Zn) and Non-Essential (Cd, Pb) Trace Metals in Various Estuarine and Coastal Organisms,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Vol. 106, 1987, pp. 73-89. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(87)90148-1

[23]   C. Durou, C. Mouneyrac, C. Amiard-Triquet, “Tolerance to Metals and Assessment of Energy Reserves in the Polychaete Nereis Diversicolor in Clean and Contaminated Estuaries’” Environmental Toxicology, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp. 23-31. doi:10.1002/tox.20074

[24]   I. Cardoso, J. P. Granadeiro and H. Cabral “Benthic Prey Quality in the Main Mudflat Feeding Areas of Tagus Estuary: Implications for Bird and Fish Populations,” Ciencias Marinas, aňo, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2008, pp. 283-296.

[25]   D. Cossa “A Review of the Use of Mytilus spp. as Quantitative Indicators of Cadmium and Mercury Contamination in Coastal Waters,” Oceanologica Acta, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1989, pp. 417-432.

[26]   C. R. Joiris, M. I. Azokwu, F. A. Otchere and I. B. Ali, “Mercury in the Bivalve Anadara (Senilia) Senilis from Ghana and Nigeria,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 224, No. 1-3, 1998, pp. 181-188. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00355-6

[27]   F. A. Otchere, C. Joiris, L. Holsbeek, I. B. Ali and C. J. Vanderpuye, “Heavy Metals Concentration and Burden in the Bivalves Anadara (Senilia) Senilis, Perna Perna and Crassostrea Tulipa from Ghana,” In: J. Nriagu, Ed., 11th Annual International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment Contribution number 10161, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, 2003

[28]   H. L. Phelps, D. A. Wright and J. A. Mihursky, “Factors Affecting Trace Metal Accumulation by Estuarine Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica,” Marine Ecology-Progress Series, Vol. 22, 2003, pp. 197-204.

[29]   G. A. Ferreira, A. L. S. Machado and I. R. Zalmon, “Temporal and Spatial Variation on Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Bivalve Perna Perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) on the Northern Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2004 pp. 319-327. doi:10.1590/S1516-89132004000200020

[30]   D. J. H. Phillips, “The Common Mussel, Mytilus Edulis as an Indicator of Pollution by Zinc, Cadmium, Lead and Copper. Effects of Environmental Variables on Uptake of Metals,” Marine Biology, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1976, pp. 59-69. doi:10.1007/BF00391486

[31]   S. N. Luoma and G. W. Bryan, “A Statistical Study of Environmental Factors Controlling Concentrations of Heavy Metals in the Burrowing Bivalve Scrobicularia Plana and the Polycheate Nereis Diversicolor,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 15, 1983, pp. 95-108. doi:10.1016/0272-7714(82)90040-3

[32]   S. N. Luoma and P. S. Rainbow, “Metals Contamination in Aquatic Environments: Science and Lateral Management,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008