Back
 AS  Vol.7 No.6 , June 2016
Alternative Weed Control Methods during Grape Establishment in the United States Upper Midwest
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of three mulches (straw, landscape fabric, and woodchip) and a single spring herbicide application (combination of oryzalin, flumioxazin, and glyphosate) on annual weed control and grapevine establishment in North Dakota. Vine growth, bud-break timing, bud hardiness and soil conditions were monitored to determine weed control method effects on vine progress. More consistent yellow foxtail (Setaria glauca L.) control occurred in mulched plots compared to plots treated with herbicide, particularly late in the season. In 2009, vines in mulched plots’ bud-break date were up to five days later when compared to vines grown in herbicide treated plots. However, no differences were observed in the spring of 2010. Overall, differences in growth rate were due to cultivar differences and not weed control methods. Results suggest that any of the three mulches could be used for annual weed control in northern vineyards during establishment as they offered at least as much weed control as the herbicide control and did not adversely affect vine establishment. However, continued research is needed to determine if mulches will alter fruit yield and quality upon vine maturation and together influence winter dieback of vines.
Cite this paper: Stenger, J. and Hatterman-Valenti, H. (2016) Alternative Weed Control Methods during Grape Establishment in the United States Upper Midwest. Agricultural Sciences, 7, 357-363. doi: 10.4236/as.2016.76037.
References

[1]   Balerdi, C.F. (1972) Weed Control in Young Vineyards. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 23, 58-60.

[2]   Shaulis, N.J. and Steel, R.G. (1969) The Interaction of Resistant Rootstock to Nitrogen, Weed Control, Pruning and Thinning Effects on the Productivity of Concord Grapevines. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 94, 422-428.

[3]   Appleton, B.L., Derr, J.F. and Ross, B.B. (1990) The Effect of Various Landscape Weed Control Measures on Soil Moisture and Temperature, and Tree Root Growth. Journal of Arboriculture, 16, 264-268.

[4]   Derr, J.F. and Appleton, B.L. (1989) Weed Control with Landscape Fabrics. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 7, 129-133.

[5]   Smith, M.W., Carroll, B.L. and Cheary, B.S. (2000) Mulch Improves Pecan Tree Growth during Orchard Establishment. HortScience, 35, 192-195.

[6]   Skinkis, P (2011) Overview of Vineyard Floor Management.
http://www.extension.org/pages/Overview_of_vineyard_floor_management

[7]   Dickerson, G.W. (2001) Mulches for Gardens and Landscapes. Guide H-121. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces.

[8]   Kohnke, H. and Werkhoven, C.H. (1963) Soil Temperature and Soil Freezing as Affected by an Organic Mulch. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 27, 13-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1963.03615995002700010010x

[9]   Merwin, I.A., Stiles, W.C. and Van Es, H.M. (1994) Orchard Groundcover Management Impacts on Soil Physical Properties. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 119, 216-222.

[10]   Glover, J.D., Reganold, J.P. and Andrews, P.K. (2000) Systematic Method for Rating Soil Quality of Conventional, Organic, and Integrated Apple Orchards in Washington State. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environ, 80, 29-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00131-6

[11]   USDA (2011) Web Soil Survey.
http://websoilsurvey.sc.egov.usda.gov/App/WebSoilSurvey.aspx

[12]   Fennell, A. (2004) Freezing Tolerance and Injury in Grapevines. Journal of Crop Improvement, 10, 201-235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J411v10n01_09

[13]   Goffinet, M.C. (2004) Anatomy of Grapevine Winter Injury and Recovery. Departmental Research Paper, Department of Horticultural Services, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.

[14]   Cregg, B.M. and Schutski, R. (2009) Weed Control and Organic Mulches Affect Physiology and Growth of Landscape Shrubs. HortScience, 44, 1419-1424.

[15]   Lerner, B.R. (1992) Mulching Conserves Soil Moisture. Purdue University Consumer Horticulture
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/mulch.html

[16]   Hostetler, G.L., Merwin, I.A., Brown, M.G. and Padilla-Zakour, O. (2007) Influence of Undervine Floor Management on Weed Competition, Vine Nutrition, and Yields of Pinot Noir. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 58, 421-430.

[17]   Zheng, D., Hunt Jr., E.R. and Running, S.W. (1993) A Daily Soil Temperature Model Based on Air Temperature and Precipitation for Continental Applications. Climate Research, 2, 183-191.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/cr002183

[18]   Arora, R., Rowland, L.J. and Tanino, K. (2003) Induction and Release of Bud Dormancy in Woody Perennials: A Science Comes of Age. HortScience, 38, 911-921.

 
 
Top